Origin And Development Of Guidance And Counseling Practice In Tanzanian Schools

1.0. Overview

1.1. Background and History of Guidance and Counseling in General in School Practice and other setting

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the middle ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni quoted in Guez, W. & Allen, J. (2000). Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

Counseling is a concept that has existed for a long time in Tanzania. We have sought through the ages to understand ourselves, offer counsel and develop our potential, become aware of opportunities and, in general, help ourselves in ways associated with formal guidance practice. In most communities, there has been, and there still is, a deeply embedded conviction that, under proper conditions, people can help others with their problems. Some people help others find ways of dealing with, solving, or transcending problems as Nwoye, (2009) prescribed in his writings. In schools, presently if the collaboration between teachers and students is good, students learn in a practical way. Young people develop degrees of freedom in their lives as they become aware of options and take advantage of them. At its best, helping should enable people to throw off chains and manage life situations effectively. Unprecedented economic and social changes have, over the years, changed the ways in which we manage our lives. Consequently, not all the lessons of the past can effectively deal with the challenges of modern times. Effective counseling, especially in institutions of learning has now become important. Boys and girls, and young men and women, need to be guided in the relationships between health and the environment, earning skills, knowledge, and attitudes that lead to success and failure in life. The need for counseling has become paramount in order to promote the well-being of the child. Effective guidance and counseling should help to improve the self-image of young people and facilitate achievement in life tasks. Counseling should empower girls and boys to participate fully in, and benefit from, the economic and social development of the nation.

2.0. Definitions of Concepts

2.1. Guidance

Guidance is an act of showing the way for some people, like adolescents, who cannot find the right path. It is directing, pointing, leading and accompanying. Guidance is saying “Yes” to someone who is asking for help. It is saying “Yes” to an invitation of someone who wants a temporary companion along life’s way.

Guidance is giving directions to …

Top 10 Dating Statistics Everyone Should Know

While I am a firm believer in fate, destiny, and karma, not everybody is willing to trust in “the stars” to determine their future. You may have wondered to yourself, “What is my chance of finding a mate?” Well, there are various statistics to support the answer to that question, and I have listed several of them below. You may be surprised at some of them, especially the number of people that use online dating.

1. 40 million Americans use online dating services. That’s about 40% of the adult American single population. It’s not just a fad anymore, and it just might be your ticket to finding happiness.

2. 44% of the adult American population is single. That’s over 100 million people, so your odds are actually much better than you think.

3. On average, there are 86 single men to every 100 single women in America. So, the odds are slightly in favor of men finding a mate. This ratio is a bit better in the Southwest, and in warmer climates such as Texas, Florida, and California, the ratio in some cities actually favors the women.

4. 50% of New York state adults are unmarried, making it the best state for single people. Washington, D.C. actually boasts a 70% single rate, making it the best area (although not a state) for single people.

The states with the worst ratios are Idaho and Utah, with 40% and 41% single, respectively.

5. 51% percent of single people surveyed say that flattery is the best way to attract someone. According to Are You Normal About Sex, Love, and Relationships? 25% also say to use touching as a way to flirt is very effective, and a surprising 23% say that the best way to let someone know you’re interested in them is the old schoolyard method of passing word through a friend.

6. Profiles with photos get over twice as many responses. According to economists at MIT and University of Chicago, profiles with photos get over twice as many emails as profiles without them. Sounds like a good enough reason to me to go ahead and put that photo out there on your profile.

7. You have 15 minutes to make a first impression – if you’re a woman, that is. If you’re a man, you have a little more cushion. Women usually take about an hour to decide if you’re going to have a second date.

8. #1 relationship argument is over money – according to a poll by the University of Denver. So, don’t feel too bad if you can’t agree about who’s paying for the date. It’s rather common, and not exactly a foretelling of things to come.

9. 48% of breakups in online relationships occur through email. It may seem rude or insensitive, but this is the world we live in, especially in the setting of an online relationship.

10. Only 2% of men find relationships from a barstool. This number only goes up to 9% for women. So, …

Medical Assistant in New York – Career Preparation

In order to get a job as a medical assistant in New York, you will need to first get your education and qualifications in order. Most importantly, you will need to complete a Council on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) approved course of study resulting in a certificate or an associates degree. It would be to your advantage to then take the certification exam from the American Association of Medical Assistants, as most employers prefer to hire certified medical assistants. You may also wish to join a professional organization such as the New York State Society of Medical Assistants.

There are fifteen CAAHEP approved programs to become a New York medical assistant. Thirteen of these programs result in an associates degree. These are taught through the ASA Institute of Business & Computer Tech Inc., Broome Community College, Bryant & Stratton Business College (in Syracuse, Albany, Buffalo, and Rochester), Elmira Business Institute, Erie Community College, Everest Institute in Rochester, Niagara County Community College, Plaza College, Trocaire College, and the Wood-Tobe Coburn School. The Ridley-Lowell Business & Technical Institute (in Poughkeepsie and Binghamton) and the Wood-Tobe Coburn School also have certificate programs for those who want a short program of study.

For those who want the highest pay and the best job security possible as a medical assistant in New York, it would be advisable to take the American Association of Medical Assistants certification exam to become certified. Many employers prefer to hire medical assistants with this qualification, so it is easier to find a job if you have it. You do need to become recertified every five years, but the added benefits of certification are worth the time and money necessary to get and keep this qualification.

The New York State Society of Medical Assistants can be a valuable resource for those wanting to work as a medical assistant in NY. There are events that provide networking opportunities, as well as educational opportunities.

Once you are ready to look for a job, there are a number of resources that you can take advantage of. Most major job search engines include a variety of jobs for a medical assistant in New York. As many medical assistants work in hospitals, you can also check out the employment opportunities listed by the hospitals in your area. The school where you studied may also have a job placement office that can help you secure positions as well.

Louis Zhang, Medicalassistantprogram.org …

Become an Airline Flight Attendant, What's a Flying Career Really Like?

Flying as an airline Flight Attendant can be one of the most rewarding career choices that you could make. Flying for an airline will see you experience a broad range of experiences simply through the sheer number of people that you meet and the number of places that you will visit.

There is absolutely no substitute for what airline travel as a Flight Attendant can give you. The good, the bad and the ugly of traveling life from a work and passenger perspective will be encountered over time and very likely it will be experiences that are totally unique in their own way.

A career as a Flight Attendant with a well traveled airline will certainly open your eyes to the world. The opportunities of coarse are certainly what you make of them and there are many of them to experience.

If you love people, varied work hours including weekends and public holidays such as Christmas and Easter and you're at ease with living out of a suitcase, plus you possess a strange penchant to the smell of Av-tur, then flying as an airline Flight Attendant is for you.

Being a Flight Attendant is like being part of a large family. It allows you to travel half way round the world, pull up a seat in a bar, restaurant, gym or other meeting place and talk to another Flight Attendant or airline employee as if they were your best friend. Yes, the camaraderie of flying for an airline is fantastic and possibly one of the best things about a career as a Flight Attendant. And if you are genuine, hard working and a positive person it will stand you in good stead to get along with many people and you will achieve much in your flying career.

The world really is at your feet as an airline Flight Attendant. Certainly you can find jobs that pay you a lot more money but very few that can give you the airline lifestyle. So if you are a people person and have a sense of free spirit, you will have to go a long way before you find a career that comes anywhere close to what you will experience as a flight attendant. And this is particularly so if you fly with an international airline.

Having flown for many years both domestically and internationally myself, I considered that it was the job I had that really was not a job because I looked forward to actually going to work for every flying tour of duty. It always presented variety and challenges in every day and never for one moment was it boring.

While much more could be written about the fantastic life and career that is enjoyed by a airline Flight Attendants, I hope I have whet your appetite with new goals and dreams and that you now do all within your capabilities to chase your dream to become an airline Flight Attendant. Flying, there's nothing like it and from my perspective, …

Salary Range and Benefits in Educational Administration

A degree in educational administration and supervision is usually offered at the masters or doctoral level. It can be considered as one of the few degrees that provide the opportunity to have both academic and practical knowledge in relation to public relations and matters in relation to school administration.

Apart from all this, as a qualified individual with an Educational Administration degree you can make a career as education leader in public and private institution or may even enjoy position like principal, mid-level administrator, assistant principal, instructional supervisor and superintendent. Today career in education administration may have its share of challenges, but it even offers generous rewards, job satisfaction along with best salary range that can be beyond any comparison to any other profession.

Choosing an education administration career does not mean having to live economically. The profession is one of the most demanding professions in the United States and may let you enjoy a decent salary. In fact, as per the recent analysis conducted by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics the median annual earnings for elementary and secondary school administrators were at a very comfortable $ 77,740. The statistics even reflected a salary range of $ 67,735 paid to assistant elementary principals while an average salary for high school principals may reach up to $ 92,965. Moreover, preschool and childcare center administrators may earn an average of $ 35,700 a year. Besides this, as per the recent study conducted by the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources, median annual salies for selected administrators in higher education are as follows:

Chief academic officer – $ 140,595

Academic deans:

  • Business- $ 135,080
  • Graduate Programs- $ 120,120
  • Art & Sciences- $ 121,942
  • Education- $ 117,400
  • Occupational studies / voluntary education- $ 83,000

Neverheless, it is important to note that the salaries of education administrators also depend upon the several other factors, including the location and enrollment level in the school or school district. Enjoy a profession of educational administration also let you enjoy the position accompanied by generous benefit packages. Most of the generous benefits include comprehensive health and pension plans along with four to six weeks of vacation and performance-based bonuses. Moreover, many universities and colleges also offer tuition waivers for employees and their families.

In next few years the employment opportunities for educational administrators are expected to grow at an average rate. Tough the opportunities may vary by region of the country, but with the increase in job opportunities and ratio of educational administrators the salary range is definitely expected to boost in next few years in the United States. …

Become the Future Data Scientist by Pursuing the Data Science Training

THE DATA SCIENCE COURSE: THE BEST FOR THE ONES WHO LOVE NUMBERS

Data Science, the most booming careers in the field of technology, is playing a crucial role in the field of IT industry. The knowledge base and the skills acquired by pursuing data science training assist the organizations in achieving high profitability and productivity, thereby gaining a competitive edge over others.

Learning data science is highly challenging as it is a broad and fuzzy field. It even involves a lot of fun if you are fine with dealing with numbers and algorithms.

WHAT ALL HAS TO BE DONE TO PURSUE TRAINING IN DATA SCIENCE?

The data science is all about dealing with the data generated on a daily basis and flowing into the organizations’ databases. It is all concerned with studying the origin of the information, what does it represent and then transforming it into a valuable resource. This requires mathematical skills, statistical skills and as well as programming and communication skills.

The proper interpretation and analysis of data by the data scientists assist the organizations in reducing its costs and increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of the organization.

But always remember that before pursuing data science training, always keep into consideration the following points:

a) Learn to love data

First of all, the most essential step that one has to undergo is to develop an interest in numbers and algorithms. The more you learn, the more you will be motivated to pursue it because generally, the ones who pursue data science end up quitting midway.

Always love what you learn; this will definitely assist you in developing an interest in dealing with big data which is associated with numbers and algorithms.

b) Learn by doing

When you involve yourself while learning then you will definitely feel interested in learning. What it means is that always work on projects because that’s the best way through which you are actually applying your theoretical knowledge practically.

It will assist you in developing the required skills that are actually useful and are applicable while dealing with data.

c) Learn how to communicate the valuable information

The process of gathering, analysis, and interpretation of data will be fruitful if and only if you are able to communicate and present the results i.e. the insights extracted from the raw data to the top executives and associates of the company.

Hence it is highly necessary to learn the communication skills for becoming a data scientist.

d) Never maintain the same level of difficulty

Data Science is all about climbing a steep mountain. If you stop climbing and start feeling comfortable then you will never make it. The moment you feel comfortable, just work with an even larger dataset. Always face challenges in life, then only you will be able to reach greater heights in your life be it personal or professional.…

Ohio State University (OSU) Buckeyes Football National Championships Won – 7 Total

The Ohio State University (OSU) Buckeyes football program has won a total of seven national championships during the 110 year history of the prestigious college football program. Since kicking off their first season in 1890 the Buckeyes have amassed an impressive 819-308-53 all-time record which equates to winning more than 71% of their games through the 2009 season. Chief among those 819 victories are the seven wins that secured the title of national champion.

The seven OSU national championships occurred in the following seasons:

  • 1942
  • 1954
  • 1957
  • 1961
  • 1968
  • 1970
  • 2002

The first national championship was won by head coach Paul Brown in 1942. For the 1942 season the Buckeyes went an impressive 6-1 in the Big Ten Conference while finishing the season with an overall record of 9-1 for their first national title.

Woody Hayes has a commanding lead for the most national titles by any Ohio State coach. The legendary Woody Hayes is credited with winning five separate national championships for the seasons of 1954, 1957, 1961, 1968, and 1970.

OSU claims a national championship for the 1970 season despite the fact that the team lost its final game of the year when it played the Stanford Cardinal in the Rose Bowl. Despite the fact that the widely accepted Associated Press declared the University of Nebraska the top team in the nation Buckeye fans still count the 1970 season as a national championship because of the National Football Foundation (NFF) declared Ohio State University as the best team in the country at the conclusion of the season. In the modern era the NCAA has moved towards the more universally accepted Bowl Championship Series (BCS) to crown consensus national champions in a sport where the best team at the end of the season has historically been a matter up for debt.

The most recent Ohio State national championship came in 2002 when head coach Jim Tressel lead his squad to a thrilling victory over the University of Miami Hurricanes in the Fiesta Bowl. Miami was an 11.5 point favorite going into the game and OSU pulled off the upset in Tempe, Arizona by scoring a touchdown in the second overtime to win by a final score of 31-24.

The Buckeyes competed in national championship games again following the 2006 and 2007 seasons. On both occasions OSU came up well short against Southeast Conference (SEC) opponents in the University of Florida and LSU.

While the 2009 season did not produce an eighth national championship it did conclude with a sound victory in the Rose Bowl. The 26-17 win over the University of Oregon Ducks on New Year's Day of 2010 broke a streak of three consecutive tough post season losses for Ohio State. …

How to Spot Bogus Online Degree Programs

If you're thinking about signing up for an online degree program there are a few things to keep in mind if you want to earn a degree online so you do not get to speak in one of the scams or diploma mines instead of one of the legitimate online degree programs wherever you want a bachelor's degree, masters degree, doctorate, associate or undergraduate degree, business, nursing, education or psychology degree or any other.

First of all what is a degree mill? A degree mill is a bogus college or university that sells college or university diplomas. It's actually selling you just a piece of paper, not a document that verifies your educational experience form an accredited institution.

Getting a college or university degree is one of the most expensive items people acquire in their lifetime. Many jobs or careers require a college degree. Because of this the demand is high for college degrees and there are businesses that make big business out of selling these diplomas, especially on the Internet.

How can you tell if the college or online college is bogus, a scam or phony?

First make sure the online college or university is accredited. This is one of the easiest things to check. If the college or university is accredited you still need to check and make sure it's accredited by an agency that is recognized by the CHEA (Council of Higher Education Accreditation.)

You'll find that the majority of the online diploma mills are accredited. The chilling fact is that when you check the accreditation they seem legitimate enough. It appears they are accredited. However the startling fact is that they have created these bogus agencies themselves. The names of the agencies can sound like they are legitimate and most people would assume that accreditation means just that. But this is not so.

The first thing to do is to contact the CHEA and find out if the accredited agency is listed on their accreditation list of college and university accredited agencies, both on campus and online. You will also need to do this for any online degree program or online degree course you're considering.

If the admission criteria is based solely on owning a credit card or of previous academic records transcripts or GPA's and test scores are not necessary for the online degree than be suspicious.

If you only need to fax a resume and acceptance is based on a review of it, be suspicious.
Many universities offer credit for career experience, but evaluating professional experience for college credit is not a simple matter.

There is not a university online degree program or distance learning university in the US that rewards a master's degree or doctorate online that is based solely on a review of career experience. But there are some undergraduate programs that will do it. They will usually limit the credit for experience to a maximum of ten courses or about 30 semester credits, which amounts to about one year of a …

Online Social Science Degrees

The study of Social Sciences can be a pretty interesting field, especially when you enjoy researching facts and keeping tabs on current events. And the Internet has become a hub of information for scientists and researchers, making it easier to obtain facts and opinions. If you find analyzing historical facts and their effects in the short-term and long-term composition of societies interesting, then you should enroll in a Social Science course.

Students can now earn undergraduate and graduate degrees in their chosen fields, and even go so far as to earn a doctorate title in any of the social sciences disciplines or a certificate on one of the short courses. Different academic institutions are expanding into the online degree programs to reach out to more students who must juggle work, family, and education and to provide students with the chance to pursue education without having to leave their respective states.

The field of Social Sciences has a wide scope of disciplines, and all of them are available in online degree programs offered by various universities and colleges. These academic institutions are, of course, required by the law to apply for licenses, permits, and accreditation. This is how the government regulates online degree providers. The applicant must always be aware of these procedures. The fields include Criminal Justice Degrees; History Degrees; Law Degrees; Paralegal Degrees; Political Science Degrees; Public Administration Degrees; Public Policy and Administration (PPA) Degrees; Sociology Degrees; Social Work Degrees; and Interdisciplinary Degrees; among others.

Graduates of any Social Science degree program may establish careers in the government as policymakers and researchers or in corporations whose core competency is research of population demands and market behavior.…

High Protein Diets Can Have a "Bad" Impact on Your Career

With all the excitement regarding high protein diets, one area that is often not talked about is a diet rich in protein can be a major contributor to bad breath. Actually, there are several causes of bad breath, many of which most people have given little, if any, thought to.

Have you ever thought of the impact a person’s breath can have on their career? Often, the only place the smell of your breath is mentioned is in the dentist’s office. Yet, it is definitely something to think of.

Think of the last time you encountered someone with bad breath. Did you tell them? Probably not. It’s not as easy to say, “By the way, your breath is offensive,” as it is to say, “You have something on your shirt.”

Have you ever wondered if your breath is offensive? Maybe you’re someone who is constantly popping breath mints, chewing gum or spraying your mouth before you talk with others. Consider what repeatedly chewing gum or sucking on a sugar mint might be doing to your teeth.

The purpose of this article is to give you a simple understanding of where bad breath comes from and what you can do about it. As previously mentioned, high protein diets can cause bad breath. Bad breath is caused from bacteria in your mouth or throat. Decay of your teeth can also contribute to bad breath. In addition, illness, smoking, alcohol, diabetes, mucous from the throat and certain foods you eat contribute to an unpleasant odor. In extreme cases the smell is so offensive it indicates serous medical problems.

Contrary to popular belief, rarely is bad breath caused by stomach problems. Nor do mouthwashes cure bad breath. If anything, they act as a temporary solution and add to the problem over the long haul. However, mouthwash in conjunction with flossing, tooth brushing and tongue cleaning can help.

There are simple solutions for better breath and there are more drastic measures some may need to take. On the simple side, cleaning your tongue can help a great deal. You can use your toothbrush to do this. Try to go back as far as you can in order to gain the best result. Some people may initially experience a gag reflex. The more you put this into your oral hygiene practice, the easier it becomes.

Regular professional teeth cleanings are another simple solution. The best part of having a regular cleaning with your dental hygienist is you will be able to catch any contributing problems as soon as possible.

If you have any teeth that need repair such as lose fillings, apparent decay, or chips see you dental professional as soon as possible. Not only will you be able to lessen the problems you may have with bad breath, you will reduce the long-term negative effects such things can have on your mouth and overall health.

Regardless of your profession bad breath is something that impacts you in unspoken ways. With the simple steps outlined in …