The City Of Cardiff – Europe's Youngest Capital

The origin of the name of the city of Cardiff is subject to much ambiguity. Cardiff is the Anglicised version of the Welsh name "Caerdydd". "Caerdydd" is split into two words; "Caer" means' fort, and "Dydd" or "Diff", which is thought by some to refer to the river Taff on which the castle of Cardiff stands. Others, however, take it to refer to the Roman general Didius, who was governor of nearby provinces. Although it is Europe's youngest capital, having only been made the Welsh capital in 1955, the earliest evidence of habituation in Cardiff can be traced all the way back to 600BC, with the European Celts, but it was in AD 75, when the Romans came and built a fort in Cardiff that it became renamed. The relics of a Roman wall can still be found beneath Cardiff Castle. Cardiff was attacked in AD 850 by the Vikings followed by a Norman takeover in the 12th century, and it was the Normans who built the Cardiff Castle, on the same site as the Roman fort.

The following centuries brought no enhancements of Cardiff's fame, although conflicts with English rulers were recurrent, as were foreign attacks by the Saxons and the Irish. The city relied on coal and iron industries like most of South Wales. In 1536 came the First Act of Union which aligned English and Welsh law, and made English the official language, a decision leading to a great deal of conflict until very recently.

The nineteenth century bought with itself the construction of a canal, and the opening of the Taff Vale Railway in 1841, which linked Cardiff with Merthyr Tydfil – the largest iron producing area in the world – enabling goods to be transported in less than an hour. This revolutionized the exportation of Welsh coal and propelled Cardiff to the front of the industry. 1859 saw the opening of the East Dock in Cardiff, augmenting Cardiff's status as a city of trade and industry and causing a steep rise in the population, and by the time it was made a city in 1905 by Edward VII, Cardiff had become a major exporter of coal and the population of Cardiff had risen by nearly 150,000 in the nineteenth century's last decade alone. The early 20th century saw the declination of the coal industry but the building of the civic buildings of Cathays Park such as the City Hall and the National Museum of Wales, which have come to be part of the city's character now.

With the Welsh language having been made official in 1942, Cardiff was designated the Welsh capital in 1955. With the growth of new industries and businesses, the increase in popularity of Cardiff as a university city and the formation of the new Welsh Assembly, Cardiff progressed significantly in the latter decades of the 20th century. The old dock area was transformed, and the new Cardiff Bay consists of various shops, restaurants and bars, giving the waterfront the most festive …

Is Psychology a Science Or an Art?

Psychology is a science because it analyzes human behavior and the human mind. Art is free of rules and totally based on subjective conceptions. Science is based on the objective analysis of facts that belong to our reality, studies, and comparisons. Art is based on talent and intuition.

As a psychologist and literature writer, I clearly recognize that there is great difference between science and art. However, because I’m an artist, I could understand the meaning of dreams better than Carl Jung, who was only a scientist. There is an artistic side that characterizes psychology in many ways. For example, the dream language is poetical and philosophical. The unconscious mind that produces our dreams helps us develop our sensitivity.

Psychology is a science that studies human emotions and feelings. Our psyche is very sensitive. Thus, a psychologist must be able to penetrate into a sensitive world that works based on feelings. It requires a different approach that surpasses the limits of science.

The unconscious mind that analyzes our psyche and produces our dreams is an artist, a psychologist, a teacher, a priest, and our best friend. This is why the unconscious psychotherapy also works like a spiritual transformation.

By translating the meaning of our dreams, we understand that the meaning of life is not based on our daily routine. We live in order to become real human beings instead of being selfish monsters. This is why the unconscious mind is also responsible for our religious inclinations.

Religion is a form of psychotherapy. It teaches us the meaning of spirituality, helping us understand that we must cultivate goodness in our hearts in order to evolve. Goodness is the only antidote against craziness and terror.

Our wild nature must be tamed by our sensitivity and our goodness. This is the meaning of human life, and at the same time, a psychological necessity. If we won’t fight against the absurdity imposed by our wild and evil anti-conscience, we will be dominated by craziness. The various crimes, wars, and many other horrors that characterize our world prove that we are very violent creatures.

Thus, psychology is an art because it penetrates into the sensitive field of the human psyche, looking for answers and solutions. This is an unpredictable field, where emotions and fears must be comprehended and transformed into positive reactions. However, psychology is basically a very serious science that fights against absurdity, trying to maintain our mental stability.

Absurdity is a terrible enemy that human beings are not able to eliminate alone. This is why the divine unconscious mind produces our dreams, sending us many important messages that work like psychotherapy. The unconscious guidance is constantly helping us fight against the destruction of our human conscience by the evil anti-conscience.

When our human conscience is alive, we feel compassion. We understand that human beings are imperfect creatures who make many mistakes, forgiving our enemies. However, when the anti-conscience dominates our mind and controls our behavior, we cannot forgive anyone. We become murderers, killing …