How Far Has Science Come in Understanding the Causes of Prostate Cancer?

The study of prostate cancer has come a long way since its identification in 1853. Information concerning diagnostic methods, treatment options and even the pathophysiological characteristics of this condition has been provided in useful details by researchers, but the specific causes of prostate cancer remain unknown up to this day.

The causes of prostate cancer, or any other type of cancer for that matter, have remained a mystery to those who are studying the disease. Despite being able to explain the process by which cancer of the prostate develops, the exact reasons behind the condition's occurrence remains a challenge to cancer researchers.

Cancer of the prostate is a condition that affects only men. The prostate gland, which is part of the male reproductive system, helps make and store seminal fluid. It surrounds part of the urethra and is located under the urinary bladder and in front of the rectum. Its position allows it to influence the processes of urination, ejaculation and defecation.

Although the causes of cancer of the prostate have yet to be fully understood, scientists were able to identify some of the factors associated with the risk of developing this condition. A man's chances of developing prostate cancer are affected by his age, genes, race, diet, lifestyle and the medications that he is taking. Cancer of the prostate is quite uncommon in men aged below 45. However, the chances of developing prostate cancer increase as a man ages. Based on statistics collected on prostate cancer patients, 70 is the average age of diagnosis.

Prostate cancer is a slow developing condition. Some men who have it never even knew that they had the condition and they could die of other causes before their cancer manifests itself. But a man who has a first degree relative, like a brother or a father, who has been diagnosed with this condition is believable to have a higher chance of developing prostate cancer, particularly if the relative was diagnosed at an early age.

Among the races, African Americans have been known to account for the highest percentage of diagnosed cases of prostate cancer. Asians, on the other hand, recorded the least number of diagnosed cases. Researchers speculate that this might be due to the difference between the diet and lifestyle of Western and Asian men. Westerners usually take in more red meat while Asians are more likely to eat vegetables and fruits. Men who have higher levels of the short chain fatty acid linolenic acid have also been found to have higher rates of cancer in the prostate. Other dietary factors that have been implicated in the development of prostate cancer include low intake of elements such as vitamin E, lycopene, omega-3 fatty acids and selenium.

In terms of genetics, no single gene has yet to be proved to be responsible for the development of prostate cancer, although BRCA1 and BRCA2, both risk factors for ovarian cancer and breast cancer in women, have been implicated.

Although the causes of prostate cancer have not …

Recognizing Navigational Tools For the Future of Education

I have to laugh when I think of the times I watched the television program, "Flash Gordon," as he putted through outer space in his make-believe space ship, speaking on his make-believe wireless radio, and dressed in his make- believe space suit. Well, I'm not laughing anymore. Today we have shuttled astronauts into outer space, have men living in a Space Station, have space suites that take your temperature and gauge your heart rate, and wireless communication devices that send pictures to Planet Earth. Far fetched from reality? Not anymore. As we speak, the future is starring us in the face, waiting to see how we will promote her in the next 5-10 years.

How did science-fiction become reality over the past 50 years? Let's consider one aspect of innovation: the learning environment – post secondary education. Why post secondary education, you may ask? As post secondary education population increases, programs to accommodate students will develop into curriculum that affords students the freedom to create and design systems that they toy with on a daily basis. Are there risks involved in this adaptation process? There are risks involved when change occurs, and leadership should be aware of how to diplomatically confront the risk areas that could slow down progress. Some of the risks that could be encountered due to change are:

o Systems risks

o Subsystem risks

o People

o Financial / economic risks

o Societal / Cultural risks

If communication between systems, subsystems, people, and cultures within the organizational environment has established a strong communication system, risks factors will be at a minimum as long as the creative teams are honest and upfront about their reservations to change.

Let's look into the future through 'futureoculers' and see how the universe of learning can be brought into the present. I want to introduce to you five (5) key trends that I believe affect the current learning environment, can create change, and renovate the perspective of learners and educators for students of the future. These trends could have been the key in creating a new perspective in post secondary education for an institution. The key trends are:

o Competitive classroom learning environments – campus on-site / online / distant

o Increase in technological tools

o Teaching / learning environments-more hands on

o Global expansion capability-internal and external

o Student input in the creative learning process

Navigational Systems

Before the five (5) key trends are defined, there needs to be an acknowledgment of how the trends will be supported and regulated through a changing environment. According to de Kluyver, and Pearce, II, having the right systems and processes / subsystems organizational organizational effectiveness and facilitates coping with change. Misaligned systems and processes can be a powerful drag on an organization's ability to adapt. Therefore, check what effect, if any, current systems and processes are likely to have on a company's ability to implement a particular strategy is well advised. Support systems such as a company's planning, budgeting, accounting, information and reward and …

Student Motivation: What Is Wrong With Education!

Working as an educator for the past 30 years, as a teacher, counselor and school psychologist a major interest of mine has always been student motivation. I have had the opportunity to have worked with students from the pre-Kindergarten to twelfth grade level in school systems in Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Connecticut. I have been in inner city, poverty-stricken districts and affluent districts. Which means I have seen students with significant social-economic disadvantages succeed, and ones that had "everything" going for them fail.

Personally, I fit into the first category. My parents divorced when I was 2 years old, my mother was a waitress that never finished High School and my stepfather who raised me (after age 7) never went to High School. My older brother quit school in the 10th grade. No one in my family attended college so I had very little family influence to pursue any academic goals. I remember as a child my steplining telling me to get "C's" in school. "C's are good," he would say. Perhaps, because he never even realized that when he was in school. Of course, this was when I was repeating the first grade so he was trying to get me to do better at the time. I muddled through elementary school and do not believe I started to get any career interests until Middle School. There I began taking an interest in science. It was exciting times in science and technology in the late 60's with the moon landing, Star Trek on TV, and Jacques Cousteau exploring the ocean and I was talked up in it.

However, I still had no clue on what it would take to succeed at something in life. Fortunately, High School sports changed that. I had a freshman football coach that did not accept excuses, and gradually it began to sink in that if you were to get anywhere in life you had to apply effort. I also started to get the idea that if other kids could go to college and have a good career, why could not I? I was just as good as them. I began applying effort to my academies as well and did go to a four-year college after high school pursuing my interest in science.

As a teacher I was always very aware of how my background related to many of my students. With the students that struggled in school, the ones that had behavior issues and applied little effort to their academies, my first question to them was always, "What do you want to do after high school?" Unfortunately, most of these students had little idea of ​​what they wanted to do. They had no realistic career ambition. Sure a lot of students up to 9th or 10th grade would say they want to be in professional sports for a career, but again few had any idea of ​​what that would require. They were clueless to the fact that most professional athletes are recruited out of good …