How to Become an Orthodontist

Images of picture-perfect smiles complete with straight, even, white teeth are often as a result of the work of an orthodontist. Regular dentist visits to fill cavities, check for healthy gums and professionally clean teeth provide us with great oral care, but, in some cases additional care is necessary. Orthodontists specialize in treating irregularities and abnormalities of the jaw and teeth which may necessitate the use of braces, headgear or specialty pieces to align the teeth and achieve facial balance. Becoming one of these specialized dentists is a process that involves a few critical steps and the passion to provide excellence in oral care and hygiene for patients.

One of the first steps to becoming an orthodontist involves acquiring a 4-year Baccalaureate degree. This four year degree should ideally be in pre-medicine or nursing as the courses that are usually required to obtain said degrees contain a variety of science courses as well as generic requirements that will help boost GPA as well as prepare you for admissions into a dentistry program. Be sure to research your Dental school of choice before determining your Bachelor's degree. Courses in Biology, Physics, Psychology, English and other language courses are recommended to include in your degree program. Depending on the program you are looking to enter after your Bachelor's degree, community service or volunteer hours are also a good thing to include during your academic career as these will set your application apart from others. Taking other supplementary courses to boost your GPA is also recommended during your program.

Once you have completed your Bachelor's degree, you will need to study for and take a Dental Aptitude Test. Similar to the MCAT's for medical students the DAT is an entrance requirement for any Dental school you apply for that measures your skills and knowledge in dentistry. Be sure to research schools before applying as each school will have specific admissions requirements and deadlines to adhere to in order to gain acceptance. Check your local library or university library for a copy of a previous DAT exam to get an idea of ​​what will be on the examination and what to study for. Bookstores often carry tests as well that you can purchase, located in the reference sections. Flashcards may also help you study for this all important test.

The next step in becoming an orthodontist is the successful completion of a 4-year graduate degree in Dental School. Once you have completed this program, you will have obtained a Doctor in Dental Medicine or Dental Surgery allowing you to specialize in multiple post-graduate programs including Orthodontics. (Some schools require a separate Masters Degree in a specialization in order to be considered for a specialty study in Orthodontics.) This final program in Orthodontic Specialties differs from school to school and may contain various research and teaching components as well as surgical residencies to complete the program. After you have completed this final specialty program generally lasting 2-3 years, you will need to apply for design …

Online Learning Visual Design Principles

Before we discuss what are some of the design principles that you can apply to on-line content, we should define what we mean by "Design". This is one of those words that are ever-present in every industry that produces something, but it often means something different to every person invoking its meaning.

For this discussion, we are making the argument that to design something is to plan its inception, production and use, and that the application of consistent principles can improve the utility of that thing. In the case of on-line educational content, this means a plan of the purpose, presentation and evaluation of that content using accepted instructional design principles. Yet, we are working in a format that requires the consideration of other applications of design ideas from other fields. The use of media types such as typography, images, and audio are directly constrained by the on-line distribution method in both presentation and technical considerations.

In other words, if we are going to produce educational content on-line, we either need to be adept in the realms of education, project management, Internet technology, graphic design, audio design and web development and design, or we need a competent team to support our efforts. However, the development procedures of each team will vary to such an amount that we may be liable for several areas within a project or be forced to change hats due to resource constraints. We may not be experts in every area, but we had better be certain that we are at least passing knowable, if for no other reason than to know how to assign and evaluate tasks for other members.

In a nutshell, we should look at design as applying certain general principals taken from various disciplines to the various elements of our content in order to make that content more usable and effective. To do this, we need to draw from ideas as varied as graphic design, information architecture, instructional design, web design and development, typographic design, audio development and others.

Basic Visual Design Elements

It is likely that a large portion of the on-line content we develop will be presented in a visual form. For this reason, it is relevant to consider what are some accepted visual design principals being used by professionals and what we might learn from them to apply to our work. However, the principles are typically applied to elements, or building blocks of visual representations that we should at least note in passing, though they may not all apply to our definition of elements or how we will apply the principles. A list of these elements may include:

  • point
  • space
  • shape
  • tone
  • form
  • mass
  • line
  • texture
  • pattern
  • time
  • light
  • color
  • Basic Visual Design Principles

    Although lists of visual design principals will differ from individual to individual, most lists will contain some arrangement of the following:

  • scale – typically contrasting one object with another
  • proportion -typically comparing elements of an object to its other elements
  • balance – often represented as an