Origin And Development Of Guidance And Counseling Practice In Tanzanian Schools

1.0. Overview

1.1. Background and History of Guidance and Counseling in General in School Practice and other setting

The history of school counseling formally started at the turn of the twentieth century, although a case can be made for tracing the foundations of counseling and guidance principles to ancient Greece and Rome with the philosophical teachings of Plato and Aristotle. There is also evidence to argue that some of the techniques and skills of modern-day guidance counselors were practiced by Catholic priests in the middle ages, as can be seen by the dedication to the concept of confidentiality within the confessional. Near the end of the sixteenth century, one of the first texts about career options appeared: The Universal Plaza of All the Professions of the World, (1626) written by Tomaso Garzoni quoted in Guez, W. & Allen, J. (2000). Nevertheless, formal guidance programs using specialized textbooks did not start until the turn of the twentieth century.

Counseling is a concept that has existed for a long time in Tanzania. We have sought through the ages to understand ourselves, offer counsel and develop our potential, become aware of opportunities and, in general, help ourselves in ways associated with formal guidance practice. In most communities, there has been, and there still is, a deeply embedded conviction that, under proper conditions, people can help others with their problems. Some people help others find ways of dealing with, solving, or transcending problems as Nwoye, (2009) prescribed in his writings. In schools, presently if the collaboration between teachers and students is good, students learn in a practical way. Young people develop degrees of freedom in their lives as they become aware of options and take advantage of them. At its best, helping should enable people to throw off chains and manage life situations effectively. Unprecedented economic and social changes have, over the years, changed the ways in which we manage our lives. Consequently, not all the lessons of the past can effectively deal with the challenges of modern times. Effective counseling, especially in institutions of learning has now become important. Boys and girls, and young men and women, need to be guided in the relationships between health and the environment, earning skills, knowledge, and attitudes that lead to success and failure in life. The need for counseling has become paramount in order to promote the well-being of the child. Effective guidance and counseling should help to improve the self-image of young people and facilitate achievement in life tasks. Counseling should empower girls and boys to participate fully in, and benefit from, the economic and social development of the nation.

2.0. Definitions of Concepts

2.1. Guidance

Guidance is an act of showing the way for some people, like adolescents, who cannot find the right path. It is directing, pointing, leading and accompanying. Guidance is saying “Yes” to someone who is asking for help. It is saying “Yes” to an invitation of someone who wants a temporary companion along life’s way.

Guidance is giving directions to …

Medical Assistant in New York – Career Preparation

In order to get a job as a medical assistant in New York, you will need to first get your education and qualifications in order. Most importantly, you will need to complete a Council on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) approved course of study resulting in a certificate or an associates degree. It would be to your advantage to then take the certification exam from the American Association of Medical Assistants, as most employers prefer to hire certified medical assistants. You may also wish to join a professional organization such as the New York State Society of Medical Assistants.

There are fifteen CAAHEP approved programs to become a New York medical assistant. Thirteen of these programs result in an associates degree. These are taught through the ASA Institute of Business & Computer Tech Inc., Broome Community College, Bryant & Stratton Business College (in Syracuse, Albany, Buffalo, and Rochester), Elmira Business Institute, Erie Community College, Everest Institute in Rochester, Niagara County Community College, Plaza College, Trocaire College, and the Wood-Tobe Coburn School. The Ridley-Lowell Business & Technical Institute (in Poughkeepsie and Binghamton) and the Wood-Tobe Coburn School also have certificate programs for those who want a short program of study.

For those who want the highest pay and the best job security possible as a medical assistant in New York, it would be advisable to take the American Association of Medical Assistants certification exam to become certified. Many employers prefer to hire medical assistants with this qualification, so it is easier to find a job if you have it. You do need to become recertified every five years, but the added benefits of certification are worth the time and money necessary to get and keep this qualification.

The New York State Society of Medical Assistants can be a valuable resource for those wanting to work as a medical assistant in NY. There are events that provide networking opportunities, as well as educational opportunities.

Once you are ready to look for a job, there are a number of resources that you can take advantage of. Most major job search engines include a variety of jobs for a medical assistant in New York. As many medical assistants work in hospitals, you can also check out the employment opportunities listed by the hospitals in your area. The school where you studied may also have a job placement office that can help you secure positions as well.

Louis Zhang, Medicalassistantprogram.org …

Salary Range and Benefits in Educational Administration

A degree in educational administration and supervision is usually offered at the masters or doctoral level. It can be considered as one of the few degrees that provide the opportunity to have both academic and practical knowledge in relation to public relations and matters in relation to school administration.

Apart from all this, as a qualified individual with an Educational Administration degree you can make a career as education leader in public and private institution or may even enjoy position like principal, mid-level administrator, assistant principal, instructional supervisor and superintendent. Today career in education administration may have its share of challenges, but it even offers generous rewards, job satisfaction along with best salary range that can be beyond any comparison to any other profession.

Choosing an education administration career does not mean having to live economically. The profession is one of the most demanding professions in the United States and may let you enjoy a decent salary. In fact, as per the recent analysis conducted by the US Bureau of Labor Statistics the median annual earnings for elementary and secondary school administrators were at a very comfortable $ 77,740. The statistics even reflected a salary range of $ 67,735 paid to assistant elementary principals while an average salary for high school principals may reach up to $ 92,965. Moreover, preschool and childcare center administrators may earn an average of $ 35,700 a year. Besides this, as per the recent study conducted by the College and University Professional Association for Human Resources, median annual salies for selected administrators in higher education are as follows:

Chief academic officer – $ 140,595

Academic deans:

  • Business- $ 135,080
  • Graduate Programs- $ 120,120
  • Art & Sciences- $ 121,942
  • Education- $ 117,400
  • Occupational studies / voluntary education- $ 83,000

Neverheless, it is important to note that the salaries of education administrators also depend upon the several other factors, including the location and enrollment level in the school or school district. Enjoy a profession of educational administration also let you enjoy the position accompanied by generous benefit packages. Most of the generous benefits include comprehensive health and pension plans along with four to six weeks of vacation and performance-based bonuses. Moreover, many universities and colleges also offer tuition waivers for employees and their families.

In next few years the employment opportunities for educational administrators are expected to grow at an average rate. Tough the opportunities may vary by region of the country, but with the increase in job opportunities and ratio of educational administrators the salary range is definitely expected to boost in next few years in the United States. …

Ohio State University (OSU) Buckeyes Football National Championships Won – 7 Total

The Ohio State University (OSU) Buckeyes football program has won a total of seven national championships during the 110 year history of the prestigious college football program. Since kicking off their first season in 1890 the Buckeyes have amassed an impressive 819-308-53 all-time record which equates to winning more than 71% of their games through the 2009 season. Chief among those 819 victories are the seven wins that secured the title of national champion.

The seven OSU national championships occurred in the following seasons:

  • 1942
  • 1954
  • 1957
  • 1961
  • 1968
  • 1970
  • 2002

The first national championship was won by head coach Paul Brown in 1942. For the 1942 season the Buckeyes went an impressive 6-1 in the Big Ten Conference while finishing the season with an overall record of 9-1 for their first national title.

Woody Hayes has a commanding lead for the most national titles by any Ohio State coach. The legendary Woody Hayes is credited with winning five separate national championships for the seasons of 1954, 1957, 1961, 1968, and 1970.

OSU claims a national championship for the 1970 season despite the fact that the team lost its final game of the year when it played the Stanford Cardinal in the Rose Bowl. Despite the fact that the widely accepted Associated Press declared the University of Nebraska the top team in the nation Buckeye fans still count the 1970 season as a national championship because of the National Football Foundation (NFF) declared Ohio State University as the best team in the country at the conclusion of the season. In the modern era the NCAA has moved towards the more universally accepted Bowl Championship Series (BCS) to crown consensus national champions in a sport where the best team at the end of the season has historically been a matter up for debt.

The most recent Ohio State national championship came in 2002 when head coach Jim Tressel lead his squad to a thrilling victory over the University of Miami Hurricanes in the Fiesta Bowl. Miami was an 11.5 point favorite going into the game and OSU pulled off the upset in Tempe, Arizona by scoring a touchdown in the second overtime to win by a final score of 31-24.

The Buckeyes competed in national championship games again following the 2006 and 2007 seasons. On both occasions OSU came up well short against Southeast Conference (SEC) opponents in the University of Florida and LSU.

While the 2009 season did not produce an eighth national championship it did conclude with a sound victory in the Rose Bowl. The 26-17 win over the University of Oregon Ducks on New Year's Day of 2010 broke a streak of three consecutive tough post season losses for Ohio State. …

How to Spot Bogus Online Degree Programs

If you're thinking about signing up for an online degree program there are a few things to keep in mind if you want to earn a degree online so you do not get to speak in one of the scams or diploma mines instead of one of the legitimate online degree programs wherever you want a bachelor's degree, masters degree, doctorate, associate or undergraduate degree, business, nursing, education or psychology degree or any other.

First of all what is a degree mill? A degree mill is a bogus college or university that sells college or university diplomas. It's actually selling you just a piece of paper, not a document that verifies your educational experience form an accredited institution.

Getting a college or university degree is one of the most expensive items people acquire in their lifetime. Many jobs or careers require a college degree. Because of this the demand is high for college degrees and there are businesses that make big business out of selling these diplomas, especially on the Internet.

How can you tell if the college or online college is bogus, a scam or phony?

First make sure the online college or university is accredited. This is one of the easiest things to check. If the college or university is accredited you still need to check and make sure it's accredited by an agency that is recognized by the CHEA (Council of Higher Education Accreditation.)

You'll find that the majority of the online diploma mills are accredited. The chilling fact is that when you check the accreditation they seem legitimate enough. It appears they are accredited. However the startling fact is that they have created these bogus agencies themselves. The names of the agencies can sound like they are legitimate and most people would assume that accreditation means just that. But this is not so.

The first thing to do is to contact the CHEA and find out if the accredited agency is listed on their accreditation list of college and university accredited agencies, both on campus and online. You will also need to do this for any online degree program or online degree course you're considering.

If the admission criteria is based solely on owning a credit card or of previous academic records transcripts or GPA's and test scores are not necessary for the online degree than be suspicious.

If you only need to fax a resume and acceptance is based on a review of it, be suspicious.
Many universities offer credit for career experience, but evaluating professional experience for college credit is not a simple matter.

There is not a university online degree program or distance learning university in the US that rewards a master's degree or doctorate online that is based solely on a review of career experience. But there are some undergraduate programs that will do it. They will usually limit the credit for experience to a maximum of ten courses or about 30 semester credits, which amounts to about one year of a …

End the Madness: Down with the College Football BCS System

Lets' face it: the BCS is a piece of garbage. It encourages unsportsmanlike behavior – and there really seems to be too much of that these days – by forcing teams to run up scores to maintain high poll positions. It safeguards corruption by allowing poll voters to affect dramatic changes at the last minute, bowing to political pressure. It has responded in weaker overall bowl matchups. And worst of all, it denies us the ability to settle the matter of the championship on the field.

Auburn, who will face ninth-ranked and two loss Virginia Tech in the Sugar Bowl, are the first team to go undefeated in the SEC and be denied a shot at the title. They beat three top ten teams, and a good Tennessee team twice. Auburn would actually be better off under the pre-BCS system because there would at least be the possibility of sharing the title.

California led Texas in the BCS and was poised for a deserved shot in the Rose Bowl until, at the last minute, the last night of college football – on a night when Cal faced a tough competitor in Southern Miss after a long trip across the country – some voters raised Texas above Cal. This came after two weeks of politicking by Texas coach Matt Brown. There were even reports that some ballots in Texas were submitted before the games were even done.

California passed on the opportunity to score a very late, meaningless touch down, and it's likely that move had an impact on their drop in the polls. There is no longer any room for sportsmanship when a BCS bowl is on the line. A team competing for positioning in the BCS has no choice but to pummel its opponents.

The tie-ins the major bowls now have to conference championships has replied in an 8-3 Pittburgh team playing undefeated Utah in the Fiesta Bowl, and a two loss Virginia Tech taking on undefeated Auburn in the Orange. Meanwhile, one loss Cal takes on 7-4 Texas Tech in the Holiday Bowl. Are these the best possible matchups that could have been put together?

I do not think the creators of the BCS envisioned what we have now. I really believe it was an attempt to have something better. But it's time to admit that the system is a failure, and move on. The old system is better than what we have now. A playoff system is very feasible – given that it already exists in every sport except major college football – and would generate even more money than the current bowl system. The argument that it would take too much time away from the players' schoolwork is rubbish. Will we ever know the true details of the conspiracy among the university members, the bowls, and any number of parties, to deny us an honest play system? I doubt it. But it is shameful that the presidents of the NCAA-member universities allow such a system, that …

5 Leading Online Schools

The internet has revolutionized many parts of our economy. You can shop, meet people online and, now, you can take college courses for credit. Five schools are influencing “distance learning” like no others before them. Let’s take a look at online education providers as offered by these leading schools.

The University of Phoenix was among the first accredited universities to provide college degree programs via the internet. Founded in 1976, the university began to offer internet degree programs in 1989. The program has grown to where 150,000 students are in the process of pursuing degrees on the Bachelors, Masters and Doctoral level at any given time. Programs in Technology, Business, Education, Nursing, and Management are offered and The University of Phoenix has now become the largest private university in the US.

DeVry University offers business and technology degrees on the undergraduate and graduate level. In addition, the school offers graduate level certificate programs. Headquartered in Illinois, the school allows students to work on their degree while online, at a local campus, or both. Indeed, campuses can now be found in 21 states as well as in Alberta, Canada.

Westwood College traces its roots to Denver, Colorado where it was founded in 1953 as the Denver Institute of Technology. Fifteen campuses in California, Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, and Texas comprise the physical campus with the internet opening up the school to students around the world. Westwood offers programs in Aviation, Business, Criminal Justice, Design, Technology, Health Sciences, and Industrial Sciences.

Kaplan University is a wholly owned company of The Washington Post Company, a publisher of one the nation’s leading newspapers, The Washington Post. Kaplan’s offerings include degrees in Arts and Science, Business, Criminal Justice, Education, Technology and Design, Nursing and Health Care, Paralegal Studies, and Financial Planning. The school offers students degrees on the Associates, Bachelors, and Masters levels as well as certificates for certain programs.

Founded in Naples, Florida in 1970 by a couple who wanted to offer a way for working adults to pursue doctoral degrees, Walden University has evolved into a large, online university offering students degrees on the Bachelors, Masters, and Doctoral level. Now headquartered in Minneapolis, the university features five distinct schools: School of Education, School of Management, School of Health and Human Services, School of Psychology, and the NTU School of Engineering and Applied Science.

Online education is not for everyone and that is why the first three universities give to their students the option to study on campus, while the last two are strictly internet based. However, all five schools offer to students something that traditional programs do not have: the opportunity to pursue a degree at a pace the student determines and at a place [your computer] that is appealing to many. Unquestionably, online education has arrived as a viable alternative for degree seeking students around the world.

(c)2005; Matthew C Keegan, LLC…

Oxford- A City Guide

Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England,
With a population of 134,248 (2001 census). It is home to the
University of Oxford, the oldest university in the English-speaking
World. It is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by
Matthew Arnold in reference to the harmonious architecture of the
University buildings. The Oxford suburb of Cowley has a long history of
Carmaking, and still produces BMW MINIs.

History

Oxford was first employed in Saxon times, and was initially known as
"Oxenaforda". It began with the foundations of St Frideswide's nunnery
In the 8th century. The University of Oxford is first mentioned in 12th
Century records. Oxford's earliest colleges were University College
(1249), Balliol (1263) and Merton (1264).

During the English Civil War, Oxford housed the court of Charles I in
1642, after the king was expelled from London, although there was
Strong support in the town for the Parliamentaryarian cause. In the 19th
Century the controversial surrounding the Oxford Movement in the Anglican
Church drew attention to the city as a focus of theological thought.
Oxford's Town Hall was built by Henry T. Hare, the foundation stone was
Laid on 6 July 1893 and opened by the future King Edward VII on 12 May
1897. By the early 20th century Oxford was experiencing rapid
Industrial and population growth, with the printing and publishing
Industries becoming well established by the 1920s.

Places of interest

Oxford has numerous major tourist attractions, many belonging to the
University and colleges. As well as several famous institutions, the
Town center is home to Carfax Tower and a historical themed ride, The
Oxford Story. In the summer, punting on the Thames (sometimes called
The Isis as it flows through Oxford) and the Cherwell is popular.
Other notable attractions include:

  • Christ Church Cathedral
  • The Church of St Mary the Virgin (the University Church)
  • Martyrs' Memorial
  • Ashmolean Museum
  • Pitt Rivers Museum
  • Museum of Natural History
  • Museum of the History of Science
  • Science Oxford
  • University buildings
  • The University Parks
  • The University Botanic Garden
  • Cornmarket Street, Oxford
  • Turl Street, Oxford
  • Little Clarendon Street
  • Oxford Covered Market
  • Westgate Shopping Center
  • Museums and Art Galleries

    Oxford has a large number of museums and galleries open for public.
    Following are the world famous and a major tourist spot in Oxford:

  • Ashmolean Museum, Britain's oldest museum
  • Pitt Rivers Museum
  • Museum of Natural History, home of (the remains of) the Oxford Dodo
  • Museum of the History of Science, in Britain's oldest purpose-built
    Museum building
  • Museum of Oxford
  • Museum of Modern Art
  • Science Oxford
  • Shopping

    Golden Cross, an arcade of first-class shops and boutiques, lies
    Between Cornmarket Street and the Covered Market. Parts of the colorful
    Gallery date from the 12th century. Many buildings remain from the
    Medieval era, along with some 15th- and 17th-century structures. The
    Market also has a reputation as the Covent Garden of Oxford, with live
    Entertainment on Saturday mornings in summer. In its way, Alice's Shop,
    Played an important role in English literature, it …

    Professors – Separate Your 'University Self' From Your 'Entrepreneurial Self' – Tips and Suggestions

    If you are a professor (and I'm assuming you are since you're reading an article that starts with the word 'professors'), then you might have a question similar to this one:

    I am interested in developing a line of teaching tools that come from my experience teaching graduate students and faculty. In developing teaching tools or publications that grow out of a university career, how do you carefully separate your business self from your faculty self? Can you do both at once?

    This is such a wonderful question and is one that many faculty members may have pondered in one form or another as they think about various aspects of their career and how they can develop 'deliverables' from their work that could be taken to a larger market or audience. From my own experience – doing this very thing – here are some recommendations:

    1. Establish a company that is separate from your personal 'self.' You need to set up a separate entity for everything you are doing related to your teaching tools (or other ideas or products that will spin off this project). You will need a checking account that is just for your company as well as designing a credit card for this. You can start at as a DBA rather than incorporating, but I would not wait too long on that. This is definitely a tip where 'sooner rather than later' is the watch-phrase.
    2. Begin to think about yourself separately. You have your university self and you have your entrepreneurial-separate-from-the-university self. Designate times when you are working on your entrepreneurial projects – and see it as separate time and as a separate part of your life and work. Avoid working on your entrepreneurial projects while at the university (writing, making phone calls, or whatever) but rather work on it at home. It's not that university folks do not regularly work on their college work at home – we all do, however, going the other direction is what you want to avoid. People are a little testy in the academy when someone shines – let alone when someone shows an entrepreneurial sense and then, heaven-forbid, actually makes money from it.
    3. Avoid talking about your teaching tools, books, manuals, consulting, etc. with others at the university. While you may be very excited about what you're doing, others may be jealous either of what you're doing or just the fact that you're excited about it. There's no need to get others worked up unnecessarily. You want to stay under the radar – not secretive, not sneaky by any means – just under the radar. Announcing what you're doing (which tend not to be most faculty members' styles anyway) is not going to help you in any way.
    4. Find others – nearby or far away – who ARE excited and DO want to know what you're doing and talk with them about your projects. The beauty today is that we can find MasterMind members / colleagues / supporters anywhere in the

    How to Choose the Right Career Major

    Once graduated in high school, the first most baffling thing to ever haunt the young adult life is this: how to pick the right course or career major. You know that this will be the first step in deciding your career later on. Here are a few tips on how to choose the right career major for you:

    First off, know what you want. Ask yourself this simple question: what do I want to be 5 years from now? Where do I want to work? Visualize yourself in your dream jobs and assessment if you have the required skills for such aspirations. Most of the time, these things are not very far off. For example, if you always like drawing and you know that you can draw well, you might fall into a major that's connected with the arts. If you want a truly artistic career, you can pick graphic design, fashion design or interior design. If you want a more "industrial" path, you can take an architectural major or industrial design.

    For added support, you can also take assessment tests. They are available in almost all high schools and colleges. Some are even available online! They are designed to identify the professions that match your skills and interests. They are, most often, accurate in determining which career major you're truly love, and one that you can consistently perform at. This is crucial since you do not want to get run over by emotions or whatever course / major is in the fad at the time that you are applying for a college.

    Lastly, you need to take into consideration the actual learning requirements of the majors that you have in mind. When already acquainted a list, do some research about it and consider different aspects such as educational attainment, skills needed, working hours, deadlines and the usual compensation rate that it entails. Make use of books, newspapers, Internet and catalogs in finding detailed information. For practical reasons, you may also want to take into consideration the number of schools offering the major that you like (and deem perfect for you), the post-college requirements in order to establish a good career and the price of course. This way, you know that you can make the most out of the time that you spend in college and you do not end up "falling out of love" with your first choice just because there's a subject that you need to take in a different campus, requirements that could eat up your weekend nights, or because you have a feeling you'll always hate taking essay tests.

    It is always best to come up with a list of at least top 3 choices for the major that you want to take up. If you get your first choice, if it fits well with all the given circumstances, then you're lucky. Otherwise, you will still end up with options where you are good at. Analyze all the factors and remember to always be realistic. Good …