Teaching and Learning Modern Foreign Languages in the United Kingdom Part 1

I.1. Modern Foreign Languages within the curriculum: 1900 – 1988

I.1.a. A curriculum?

Between the1880s and 1904, many pupils had the opportunity of learning a Modern Foreign Language. The main language taught was French; however, German was also taught occasionally. This was the case in most schools existing at the time, although schooling was less compulsory, with compulsory education targeting only a range of students from six to twelve.

In 1904, the Board of Education suppressed Modern Foreign Languages from the curriculum. This lasted for almost 60 years. This had an impact on generations of British pupils, in so far that languages did not appear to be important; and therefore, for years, the British have argued that they were no good at learning them.

The 1944 Education Act was a turning point for the United Kingdom’s educational system. It made school compulsory between the ages of 5 and 15. The Ministry of Education, which had become the Department for Education and Science, introduced the “tripartite system”. Secondary schools were converted into ‘Grammar schools’ for the most able students, the senior schools turned into ‘Secondary Modern Schools’ and had the majority of the students on their roll, and ‘Secondary Technical Schools’ for those with a technical/scientific aptitude were created. The age at which the transition between primary and secondary schools was to be made became more definite in the 1980s, when the different age groups were divided into five Key Stages. Students had to start secondary school at the end of Key Stage 2.

In 1944, the Local Education Authorities provided the facilities and equipment for schools. They also acquired the resources needed and paid teachers. They were to make sure that there was enough space to accommodate all the students between the age of 5 and 15 within the catchment area. They also determined the length of the school day. They had an overview of the curriculum, but no control as such. Over time, the way Local Education Authorities administered their area was very different and the emphasis placed on certain types of school had a tremendous impact on the wider community.

The Secretary of State did not have the legal right to determine the contents of the curriculum. The Department for Education and Sciences’ requests, as far as the curriculum was concerned, were extremely limited except for Religious Studies (daily worship and religious education became statutory). The subjects taught, and the methods and contents, were left to the teaching profession and head teachers. This was the case until the 1980s, though Her Majesty’s Inspectorate and the Office for Standards in Education were inspecting and reporting about schools. No major change happened until 1988.

Therefore between 1904 and 1964, the teaching of languages as we perceive it in 2005 was very limited, in the few schools that offered this option. These were mainly grammar schools or public schools. Indeed, often students were taught only Greek or Latin. Where Modern Foreign Languages were made available, the main skills developed were reading …

Textbook Rentals for College: 8 Reasons to RENT Rather Than Purchase Your College Text Books

Whether you are a full time student at a four year college, a grad student, a student at a community college or a working adult taking classes when you can fit them in, a huge expense is your textbooks.

Yes, you can find used textbooks that will save you same money. But have you thought about textbook rentals for college?

We rent lots of other things, why not text books?

Here are 8 reasons it is smarter to rent rather than buy your textbooks for college:

1. Cheaper: It costs far less to rent a textbook than it does to buy it. When you buy it, it is yours! When you rent it, you are just borrowing it. You are probably thinking – what if I want to keep the book? Simple, all of the top college textbook rental sites have a great purchase plan should you decide to keep the text.

2. Convenience: have you ever stood in line at your college store waiting for your turn to spend a lot of money? There is no line at the online stores!

3. Flexibility: colleges are on many different schedules and so are most of the top book rental sites. They are set up so you can rent for the quarter, the semester, or even the summer.

4. Delivery: textbooks are packed and shipped and arrive at your door. No lugging them from the store to your car and in to your house or dorm.

5. Easy return: the best textbook rental sites will give you FREE shipping when you are ready to return your books. Simply pack them up, slap on the label, and they're ready to be returned.

6. Current Editions: have you ever taken a class that used the professor's own book he has written? Of course, we all have. What if you buy the current edition, plan to sell it at the end of the year, but that professor comes out with a brand new edition. You are stuck – as no one wants to purchase an out of date edition. By renting, you will avoid that problem.

7. Selection: all of the online sites have a HUGE selection of textbooks. Some even have lists for different universities. This makes it easy to get the exact book that you need.

8. Simplicity: why not use textbook rentals for college to simplify this busy time of your life?

Renting textbooks makes so much more sense then buying them. You will save time and money – can not beat that! …

Three Keys to Successful College Student Diets

Going to college can mean a very unhealthy lifestyle. College student diets consist of many unhealthy foods such as junk food, energy drinks filled with nothing but sugar, overly processed foods made to last for twenty years, and foods packed in grease and oil. Still, however, college students eat this food because of many reasons from a lack of time, not having parents to cook for them, and the need for a quick boost of energy to get their work done.

Not only is the college students diet awful but their lifestyle can be extremely unhealthy as well. Drinking lots of alcohol filled with empty calories, smoking with friends, and staying up all night to study for tests every single week.

Here are three keys to a successful college student diet. If you follow these you will be much healthier than many of your peers.

Success Tip 1 – Limit the amount of sugar you eat

Sugar is filled with very simple carbohydrates which will give you a quick burst of energy. After that energy burst, however, your energy levels will fall and this they will do very drastically. It raises blood sugar levels and then causes them to crash. Although sugar is a major favorite of college students wanting that boost of energy, it will always make you feel worse.

Success Tip 2 – Eat More Veggies

Remember how your parents always told you to eat your vegetables? If you do not then you're probably eating extremely unhealthy! Going to college can make it very difficult to go out and buy fruits and veggies at the grocery store. They are also very expensive and can put a major hole in your wallet.

If you have a cafeteria at your college and have meal plans or something similar be sure to get at least one serving of fruits a day.

Success Tip 3 – Order Healthy When Going Out

In college, you are able to go out with friends whenever you wish. For most people, going out places means going to eat somewhere. When you go on a date most likely you are going to go to a place that has food. It is what our society is built around. The average person eats half of their food every year from dining places and restaurants.

When you go to these outings to eat be sure to order what is the healthiest. You do not always have to order salads. You can order chicken wraps if they have them. Avoid the extremely greasy foods and especially fries.

During college, it is not that hard to eat healthy. It will take some change in your diet but after a few weeks you'll be used to it and can be feeling much better than if you were basing your energy levels on the newest energy drinks. Follow these three simple success tips and avoid some weight as well! …

Nelnet Student Loans Cover Costs at All Stages of Education

In an increasingly competitive world, your intelligence, knowledge base, and the perceived quality of your education are extremely important to succeed. It's nearly impossible to get a good job out of high school, and difficult after finishing college. You need to suffer through an unwanted internship before you can get a good job, you need to go to a good school to get that internship, and you need to prepare yourself to get into a good school from an ever younger age. This can be expensive, and Nelnet student loans are available for every stage of the education you need to succeed.

Nelnet, National Education Loan Network, is an enterprise which works exclusively within the education industry, offering student financing programs as well as education software, and use their own loan management software which is also purchased by other lenders.

Nelnet offers loans starting at the very beginning of your educational career. If you need a loan to fully or partially fund your son's or daughter's private grade school or high school education, Nelnet provides loans of up to $ 20,000 per year, with a $ 1000 minimum. Private schools can form a fundamental part of the educational process, especially at the high school level. With faith in public schools fading, a private grade school can be an attractive choice for future success or simply to guarantee a good education.

Nelnet's website offers some online resources for people looking for college information, allowing them to search for colleges based on a number of different criteria including subjects offered, price, admission standards, and demographic information. This information is also provided for continuing education and online schools, graduate schools and private K-12 schools.

You can get federal loans either directly from the Department of Education or through private lenders through the Federal Family Education Loan Program; Nelnet offers all federal loans, include Stafford and PLUS loans for students, graduate students, and parents.

Private loans offered by Nelnet can cover the reminder of the cost of education after any student aid and federal loans. If you have a good credit or sign with a cosigner with good credit, you can pay as little as Prime minus 1% interest rates, and there is no limit to the total amount you can borrow. These loans can be used to finance books, computers, housing, and other cost-of-living expenses that other loans may not.

Nelnet also provides career-planning services, and you can hire them to review or edit your resume, or work with you to create a selling resume from the beginning. This service is available for both academic and professional resumes.

As a business which deals exclusively in the education industry, it is in Nelnet's best interests that your education be a success, and Nelnet student loans are designed to help you every step of the way. …

Best Place to Learn Programming

Nowadays, Programming is not just for computer geeks anymore, it has become a “must have skill” to stay in the market.

Coding is an incredibly much valuable skill for employers and members of any business team. With programming, you can make your own website, mobile app. If you learn to program, you can take your entrepreneurship skills to the next level.

Everyone holds the equal potential, and the chance to learn programming language easily. Today, we will show you a list of top websites that will help to learn to program.

Code Academy

Code Academy is one of the best places to learn programming languages. It is a well known first stop for those who are looking to begin their programming education.

Students can learn to code from their several different courses like:

  • HTML & CSS
  • JAVA
  • PHP
  • JavaScript
  • Make a Website
  • Ruby on Rails
  • Angular JS
  • SQl
  • Python
  • jQuery

MIT Open Courseware

If you want to learn to code in a high-class university level – then MIT Open Courseware is the best place for you. So take advantage of this opportunity and check out top courses like:

Introduction to Computer Science and Programming, Introduction to Programming in Java and Practical Programming in C.

Coursera

Coursera is an educational technology company that has offered more than 2,000 courses from 150 top institutions around the world.

If you want to improve the beauty of your CV, you can get a paid certificate from coursera. So learn to code from Coursera and become a top programmer.

edX

edX is the leading online-learning platform that is the open source instead of for-profit. Founded by the top universities like Harvard University and MIT in 2012. you should know that you’ll learn about the latest cutting-edge technologies and theories.

edX offers tons of free programs, including courses on programming.

Khan Academy

Khan Academy is actually my favorite to place to learn programming. If you are looking to learn to program in an interactive way then khan academy is the best place to do so. Offering free programs like:

HTML / CSS

JavaScript

SQL

Animation

and many more…

Udacity

Udacity is the project of Stanford University. It is one of many sites that make college courses available online for free. Stop thinking that how to learn programming.

Learn high-quality courses from the high quality website.

Udemy

Founded in 2010, Udemy is an online learning platform through which you can not only learn to program every programming language. But you can also learn almost every skill available on the internet. Yes! you heard it Right. There are many courses you have to pay for, also, there are several free programming courses, which are taught via interactive video lessons.

Google Android Course

Want to learn Android development, why not learn from the king of the internet Google. Offers free courses on mobile/android development (beginner to expert level). Android development is the trending skill that you can learn to get a well-paid job.

GitHub

Need a reference …

Significance of Continuing Education for Nurses

In a world where different industries continue to become more and more competitive, many employers select potential employees with a much higher form of education. The medical industry, particularly nursing, is one of these industries that require more advanced education. In this regard, continuing education for nurses continues to become a trend these days. This program is vital because nurses are the ones who often speak to patients and acquiring important educational content can be of great help for them to become more successful in their career.

Generally, continuing education for nurses is mandatory for a license renewal. This program is based on contact hours or units. In most states, the program usually works for 10 contact hours, which is 10 hours long, and it must be completed prior to applying for a license renewal. Prerequisites for this kind of program include a high school diploma or education equivalent such as diploma in nursing from an acknowledged training program, associate degree in nursing from a recognized institution, and Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) from an accredited university or college. Some of the courses offered in this program are Stroke: A Comprehensive In-depth Review, Stroke: First Response, Stroke: Managing Patient Recovery, Diabetes, Type 1, and Nursing Case Management. In connection with these courses, it is essential to pick a nursing institution that offers interesting course materials and challenging learning experience.

Continuing education for nurses is designed to refresh the knowledge and develop the skills of nurses. It also helps nurses become up-to-date on new medical or nursing information. In addition, courses offered in this program are ideal not only for nurses. Many courses are also perfect for other busy professionals like caregivers who seek convenient learning process to prepare themselves for the examination required for licenser.

Before pursuing continuing education for nurses, you need to be aware of the legislature of your state first. In present days, some states no longer consider this kind of program as a requirement for a license renewal. This is because the nursing boards of these states no longer believe that the program is necessary to increase nursing competence.

On the other hand, many other states continue to keep their commitment with the program. Since requirements vary for every state, institutional policy, and area of specialty, it is best to make relevant inquiries regarding the education itself as well as the learning process. Furthermore, reaching out to the Board of Nursing of your state is a brilliant idea to become a well-informed candidate. After acquiring pertinent information, the next best thing to do is review the course you are taking before paying.

Many nursing institutions allow you to read a course without making any registration or payment. If you are certain about the course, you may take the examination. After passing the examination, you may finally register and pay for your credit.…

Letters of Reference Defined

As I point out on the main page of my recommendation and reference resource Website, there is a great deal of general confusion about the differences and similarities between letters of reference and letters of recommendation. For instance; which is which, and why? How are they different? In what ways are they similar?

It's confusing enough for the average person who only has to write one of these letters every once in a while. However, when you look into it in-depth as I have, and realize that many of the so-called "experts" do not even know the differences between a reference letter and a recommendation letter, the general state of confusion is very understandable .

Based on further research into the subject, I define a "letter of reference" as one that is normally more general in nature than a letter of recommendation and IS NOT addressed to a specific requestor. Typically, "letters of reference" are addressed as; "To Whom It May Concern" or "Dear Sir / Madam".

The most common letters of reference are:

o Employment-related – general reference letter

o College-related – general reference letter

o Character reference letter – general-purpose personal reference

o General reference letter – various subjects

EMPLOYMENT-RELATED Reference Letter

These are more general letters that are often requested by employees when they leave the employ of an organization. Usually factual in nature, they are usually addressed, "To Whom It May Concern" and provide basic information such as: work history, dates of employment, positions held, educational credentials, etc.

These reference letters sometimes contain a general statement (as long as a positive one can be made), about the employee's work record with the company that they are leaving. Employees often submit these letters with job applications in the hope that the letter will reflect favorably on their chances for the new position.

COLLEGE-RELATED Reference Letter

These letters are very similar to college-related letters of recommendation, EXCEPT that they are not addressed to a specific individual or requestor. In the college and university context they are typically addressed to officials such as: Director, Admissions or Chairman, Scholarship Selection Committee, etc.

These college-related letters can be as specific as a recommendation letter when it comes to describing the subject / person about which the letter is written, but they are more general / generic in terms of targeted addressees. That's because at the time they are written it is often not clear exactly to which businesses or institutions they will be sent. For example, a person plans to apply to a number of colleges but when the letter is written, the specific colleges are unknown.

CHARACTER-RELATED Reference Letter

Character reference letters are always written about a specific person by someone who knows them fairly well, and usually focus on a person's general personality characteristics. They are often used in business and community service situations. Typically, a person will ask for a general character reference letter when they are leaving a company or service organization.

The focus of character reference …

Adults Returning to Education: A Guide

Adult education gives high quality education for adults to improve their standard in the society, and it can be continued at any stage of their life. It helps people graduate with the help of nation’s various adult education centers and programs. It ensures people to compete in a better way in this competitive society.

There are lots of reasons for adults to return to education after some time. Adult education can help people who wish to continue their education, people who look for a career change, or people who just wish to enhance their knowledge. Adults returning to education programs offer you plenty of choices and features to study. Many new programs and various educational departments guide you with providing high quality education in an interactive manner. It offers basic knowledge regarding computer literacy, numerical ability, and correctional education. Moreover, it allows people in developing different employment opportunities. This can be done by returning to education with various adult education programs which are available in different states.

Many educational providers invite adults to return to education after a formal break. Educational centers like Adults Who Are Returning to Education (AWARE), Center for Adults Returning to Education (CARE) are few amongst the adult education continuing centers that are doing a fine job. Adults who return to education would have had different backgrounds that led to their interruption from continuing education. Instructors in these educational centers are well trained to improve their education level according to their ability. Careful adjustments are given for older students during the learning process. There are various adult education centers and programs in which adults can continue their interrupted education.

There are many foundations throughout the nation that help adults return to education with some major features. They offer many scholarships for the adults who return to education. Adult student technical college scholarships, minority/female technical scholarships, and UW-Marinette scholarships are few of the scholarships for adults who return to education in few of the states. One can continue his/her interrupted education at any stage through these educational centers for adults and many other foundations.…

Coach Was Color-Blind, He Only Wanted to Know If You Could Play Basketball

Glory Road – 2 Stars (Average)

Basketball Coach Don Haskins does not have to wait for his legend to happen. He is a member of the Texas Sports Hall of Fame and the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame.

Few today would remember Don Haskins. He was the coach at Texas Western in 1966 when his 27-1 team played Adolph Rupp’s 27-1 University of Kentucky Wildcats for the NCAA title.

Nothing too unusual about that, except that Haskins would become the first coach in NCAA history to start an all-African American lineup when the Miners squared off against Rupp’s all-white Kentucky team that featured two players who would become well-known in the NBA pro league: Pat Riley and Louie Dampier.

Remember these names: Bobby Joe Hill, David Lattin, Orsten Artis, Willie Worsley and Harry Flournoy during February, Black History Month. They were the starting lineup for Texas Western when the Miners won the NCAA championship against an all-white Kentucky team, 72-65.

I would graduate from Michigan State University two months after Texas Western won the title, and would not be aware of just how historic this event was. My high school and college cross-country and track teams were integrated. Kentucky would not even offer African Americans basketball scholarships, and there were many other colleges and universities which excluded African American players in 1966.

There was a lot of hatred in the South at that time. Heck, there was a lot hatred everywhere, but not in Don Haskins’ will to win for Texas Western, known today as UTEP, the University of Texas at El Paso. Haskins was color-blind and simply put the best players on the floor to compete.

Haskins recruited the best players, nothing else mattered. Not even the lousy treatment and death threats both Haskins and his players received from die-hard, ignorant, bigoted Texas Western boosters and donors. They sing a different tune in Texas today, especially at the University of Texas.

Glory Road in 2006 retold the story of Don Haskins and Texas Western. Josh Lucas played the role of Don Haskins, Derek Luke played Bobby Joe Hill and John Voight played Adolph Rupp. It is not one of the best movies ever made, but the story of Texas Western is on par with other great victories in sports history, including the 1980 U. S. Hockey team winning the Gold Medal in the Olympics. Contrary to the movie version, the title game was not as big an upset as was depicted. Texas Western had an excellent team, as evidenced by its No. 3 ranking the final polls that year. Haskins was not the first coach to play African Americans, Texas Western had African American players on its roster before Haskins arrived.

Haskins was the first to start an all-African American lineup in the NCAA title game, and it is also true that Texas Western was the first college in a Southern state to integrate its athletic teams. Good for Texas Western.

Glory Road had a good message of …

USC Pharmacy School Application Requirements and Tips From an Accepted Student

I will begin with the statistics of the accepted students into the University of Southern California Doctor of Pharmacy program for 2009. 460 students were offered interviews from a pool of over 2000 applicants. 240 students are accepted (11 students from out-of-state schools), and the expected class size for 2009 is 190. One must note that USC offers their undergraduates the opportunity of guaranteed admission as long as they complete their requirements in the TAP program (these students take up a large chunk of seats available for other applicants).

Obtaining a Bachelor’s degree is now a requirement for admission at USC. The minimum GPA requirement is a 3.0 (the average GPA of accepted students is a 3.60). Since USC does not require taking the PCAT, other admission criteria is weighed more heavily (GPA, interview performance, extracurricular activities, personal statements, etc.).

For the application process, it is very important for you to note that the University of Southern California sends out interview invitations on a rolling basis, so it is important that you turn in your PharmCAS application and supplemental application as soon as possible. The deadlines for both are early November, but I highly recommend that you turn both in no latter than early August (I turned in my applications by mid-July, just 1.5 months after the application was made available).

At your interview, you will be asked questions by a current pharmacy school student as well as a faculty member. Think of it more of a conversation where you also ask questions back to both of them. When you first arrive at the interview session, you will be greeted by several current pharmacy students, who do a great job of calming you down prior to your interview. Take this opportunity to ask questions and warm up your oral communication skills. Do not worry to much about the “essay” portion as it is just a test of how well you take notes off of a random article that you read. BE SURE to follow all directions provided to you as it is also a test on how well you pay attention to details.

Here are the pre-requisites for USC’s pharmacy program:

Calculus (for science majors)

Statistics (non-business)

Physics w/lab (science/life science majors- thermodynamics & Electromagnetism recommended)

General Biology w/lab (excludes human anatomy & physiology, botany, and microbiology)

Mammalian Physiology w/lab (human preferred-excludes plant, cell and marine physiology)

Microbiology w/lab (fundamentals of microbiology for science majors)

Molecular or Cell Biology(for science majors-one upper division course)

General Chemistry w/lab (for science majors-include inorganic & qualitative analysis)

Organic Chemistry w/lab (for science majors)

Biochemistry (for science majors one upper division course)

Human Behavior (General Psychology or Introductory Sociology)

Microeconomics

For Internationals (holders of foreign US bachelor’s equivalent):

English (expository writing)

Interpersonal Communications or Public Speaking

For specific course equivalencies from your college, please check the forms available from USC’s website.

The Pharm.D. program at USC is a 4 year program. USC is a private school, and our estimated tuition and cost of living …