11 Lesser Known Facts About Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur, born in 1822, was a French scientist. He went on to become a Chemistry professor and made quite a lot of discoveries. Popularly known as Chemist and Microbiologist, he is known for his tremendous contribution to the field of science. He is known for his work in Vaccination, Pasteurization and Fermentation processes. Here are some interesting facts which throw light on his work as a scientist:

1. Pasteurization

Louis Pasteur came up with one of the most important discoveries of the pasteurization process. He found that when we heat milk, all the germs inside it get killed and this way we can have a safer way to drink and use milk. This process saved people from getting sick.

2. Study Graph of Louis

Louis started with school where he was an average student. But instead he was a gifted artist. He loved to draw and paint. He went on to acquire a doctorate degree and later became a professor of Chemistry and teacher dean faculty at Lille University.

3. “Vaccination”

He was the one who came up with the word of “Vaccination” as we know it today. He worked tremendously to find cure for many of the diseases by providing vaccination for it.

4. Changed Medicine

He came up with vaccines for cholera, small pox, anthrax and rabies and saved many lives. His rabies vaccination in the year 1885 saved a life of a boy who was the first one to get it.

5. Left-Handed and Right-Handed people

In a rather fascinating theory, Louis discovered how people are either left handed or right handed because of the molecules present in each individual, which are twisted in either of that direction. Wow!!

6. He had OCD for germs

Louis was known for his OCD. In order to find out things about diseases, he never shook hands with anybody even with royalty. He was too scared to catch diseases and infections. Guess knowing too much makes you like this!

7. He was Responsible for happiness- Beer and Wine

The fermentation process was introduced and discovered by Louis, he was responsible for making beer. He said that juices can be converted into wines and beer. He truly is responsible for our happiness!

8. Paris Pasteur Institute

In the year 1887, he founded Pasteur Institute in Paris and he remained the director of the institute till his death. Also his mortals’ remains lie in the building and a tomb was built in his memory.

9. Brain Stroke didn’t stop him

In 1868, Louis suffered a really bad brain stroke which made him partly paralyzed. But his dedication and passion kept him going for his research nevertheless.

10. “Legion of Honor”

For all the great work, Louis did, he was honored with esteemed French order of “Legion of Honor”. The Grand Croix tittle was given to him, which recognized all his contribution to the world of science.

11. He found true reasons for diseases

Initially people believed that diseases get generated spontaneously but …

How to Become an Orthodontist in Ontario

Becoming an orthodontist in Ontario requires 10 years of post secondary education.

– 4 year Bachelor of Science

– 4 year Dentistry School

– 2 year Graduate School of Orthodontics

An aspiring orthodontist must first complete a four year Bachelor of Science degree ensuring that all pre-requisite courses for dental school are completed. Individual pre-requisite courses may vary by school but generally include the core sciences including biology, chemistry, physics, physiology, biochemistry and organic chemistry courses. Interested applicants are advised to check individual school websites for requirements as different schools may have different requirements.

After completion (or for some schools, while undertaking) a Bachelor of Science undergraduate degree, an individual may sit for a DAT test (Dental Aptitude Test) administered by the Canadian Dental Association and apply to a School of Dentistry.

Upon admission into a School of Dentistry in Ontario, the student must successfully complete four years of further education which would enable them to become a practicing dentist.

In Ontario, getting acceptance into a School of Dentistry is very competitive. As a result, it’s not uncommon for students to go abroad to the US or UK to peruse their dentistry degrees.

Upon completion of a four year dentistry program, students can choose to apply to the Graduate School of Orthodontics in a Canadian school (ex: University of Western Ontario). This application process is highly selective and only the best candidates are given acceptance into the program which entails a final two years of education.

As you can see, Orthodontists go through many years of education in order to have the qualifications and skills required to treat patients.

List of Canadian Dentistry School for Prospective Students:

– Dalhousie University, Faculty of Dentistry

– McGill University, Faculty of Dentistry

– University of Alberta, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry

– University of British Columbia, Faculty of Dentistry

– University of Manitoba, Faculty of Dentistry

– University of Saskatchewan, College of Dentistry

– University of Toronto, Faculty of Dentistry

– University of Western Ontario, School of Dentistry

– Université de Montréal, Faculté de médecine dentaire

– Université Laval, Faculté de médecine dentaire…

Science Fair Project on Testing Drinking Water

You are intelligent enough to know that the purpose of most science fair projects is to teach students how to use scientific methods to solve problems on their own. A science fair project can allow students, parents, and teachers to make new discoveries together. One of those discoveries might be how clean your drinking water is.

Students may expect faucet water to be clean, but is it? A science fair project on testing drinking water can help them learn what is in the water they use. This outline will help them and you conduct a drinking water test.

State Your Hypothesis

A good example might be, “If I test drinking water from different sources, which will I find to be the best for my health?” A poor example would be, “If I drink tap water, what happens?”

Background Research

Learn all that you can about what water may contain. Research the effects of various contaminants, minerals, etc.

Develop a Drinking Water Test

What kind of drinking water test will you use? What kinds of drinking water will you test? Will you buy a kit, or simply order appropriate test materials? How will you collect the water to be sure you do not change its content?

What You Need for Drinking Water Tests

Students will need Colorimetric test strips for many drinking water tests. Kits are available from science fair websites. Water Safe Drinking Water Test is an EPA standardized, laboratory certified simple kit that identifies harmful levels of 8 different common contaminants in water: bacteria, chlorine, lead, nitrates, nitrites, pesticides, pH, and water hardness.

Predict Results

Write out a prediction of what you expect. Will your city tap water be the best water for your health? Should your family pay money to drink only bottled water? What do you predict your drinking water test will reveal?

Conduct Your Drinking Water Test

Students may choose from many drinking water tests. Here are a few possible tests. Younger students may want to use only one. Older students may combine a series of drinking water tests.

1. Basic: A basic drinking water test might allow students to test water for alkalinity, chlorine (both free and total), nitrate and nitrite, pH, and water hardness. What is the basic make-up of your water?

2. Bacteria: Along with a basic drinking water test, you might test for bacteria in the water. Water from a drinking fountain may show bacteria that collect on the bubbler and wash into the water.

3. City Water: What is in municipal drinking water? You can use the basic drinking water tests above, but check, too, for metals and sediment. Are corroding pipes contaminating the water?

4. Well Water: Since the government does not test private wells, there may be contaminants in the water taken from them. What might you find? Would you expect more sediment or less? Would your drinking water test be likely to find pesticides if the well is near a farm or garden where they are used?

5. …

Omar Mmubango – Expertise in Pharmaceutical Industry

Omar Mmubango owns Resources Corporation, a firm that provides both short and long-term Regulatory Affairs assets and to the pharmaceutical industry. As Regulatory Affairs executive, he developed, composed and executed method that standardized assessment processes of the sections of medicine application documents. Moreover, he authored control affirmation, modify, and manage protocols, and also a method for improving all six methods. Structured on his expert success he really offers his full time and even his determination in the direction of his job and in a position to allow an guidance and expertise on those who desires to know further on what he achieved in life.

He provides what he can contribute to the Pharmaceutical Industry and in a position to make it more powerful and with unity in the direction of the sector. He could generate this better and better with his aid to a powerful willpower towards his move in life. Not just through his career but also he is a humanitarian and an environmentalist. His assist to the community never ends to his profession thus it proceeds with a better concept through his advocacy on community organizations that he is a member of. He wants to inspire every individual to be aside of it. Preserving our surroundings clean and supporting human race is a greater contribution.

What do you know about him with his accomplishment and knowledge it is very remarkable. With his school instruction form University of Minnesota and finished Bachelor’s degree on Chemistry, likewise completed in an identical University on B.A. Public Health Affairs. And he has a Bachelor’s degree on Agricultural Science – Food Science and Technology in Wisconsin University and with a non-degree program on Pharmacology Toxicology.

He owns a little business that actually seems to be over the world of pharmaceutical sector that offers consulting work for those who wants to possess the understanding and expand further his comprehension to it. Through his occupation or work he never forget to have a helping hand, he is likewise a board member of a neighborhood organization in the direction of his advocacy on environmental pollution and the humanitarian cause from his neighborhood and across the globe. He is a man full of hopes and goals to be achieve.…

Acquisition of Library Materials, a Review of Some Related Literature

Universal availability of publications

Kemp (1990) lamentably noted that insufficient attention has been given by private organizations, governments or bilateral and international development agencies to the proposal of making document provision a priority in poor countries. Raising the awareness of the importance of reading in particular is very important if they are to assign adequate resources to this vital area of activity.

Line (1990) observed that the battle for availability of publications which has just begun in some countries will hardly be over in this age of information explosion. The concepts of universal availability of publications and universal bibliographic control are attributed to the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions which were part of the core programme. By comparison with the less developed parts of the world, the developed countries like Britain have a near perfect situation.

In Sierra Leone, the picture is a gloomy one. This could be attributed to the absence of union catalogues and the lack of enforcement of the legal deposit legislation. In its literal sense, the aim of the universal availability of publications is very difficult to achieve as students and researchers fail to obtain books, journals or research reports within the time necessary.

Read (1990) re-echoed the fact that many developing countries are under-supplied with textbooks and other reading materials. In order to buttress this assertion, he cited the situation in Zaire, Madagascar and China. He believed the advent of aid-funded text book projects has ameliorated the situation in developing countries. He took a very positive stand based on studies which showed significant increase in availability.

Universal bibliographic control

Ochola (1984) noted that universal bibliographic control is an aspect of development. A major problem identified was the mission of bibliographic compilation from the priorities drawn up by the colonial administration in Kenya. The Kenya National Bibliography could therefore be seen as a creation and it is in an embryonic stage.

Kwei (1988) gave a more specific treatment when he cited the situation in a developing country like Ghana where a lot of constraints are encountered in the attempt to provide excellent bibliographic services. Among problems identified are the lack of money, shortage of professional librarians, and union catalogues, government and public apathy to bibliographical work, lack of transportation facilities and the developing stage of publishing, printing and the book trade. All is not lost. In order to improve the situation, the bibliographic agency could form part of the national bibliography. Ghanaians must be current and should not be left behind in the forward march to take information to those who need it.

Otike (1989) clearly supported the value of currency of information if bibliographic data is to be fully effective. Any national bibliography which is in arrears cannot hope to meet this challenge. Among problems identified in Kenya are the current state of publishing, enforcement of the legal deposit legislation and the production of the Kenya National Bibliography. These problems can only be solved by the co-operative efforts of information workers, publishers, printers …

Benefits of Social Studies

There are many benefits of social studies, which teachers should make clear when writing lesson plans. However, with educators specializing in very particular fields of education, it has caused many issues in the education system. Social studies is one field where some teachers lack the adequate knowledge to teach students. Social has many different areas of focuses including the following:

· Anthropology

· Archeology

· Geography

· History

· Economics

· Civics

· Political science

· Culture

· Sociology

These various areas all focus on how human behaviors work and how individuals interact with the world we live in along with the cultures that make up society. Understanding history allows our society to continue growing and build upon the information and education that is already out there.

Students that are not learning social will have difficulties when trying to find jobs and interacting with the culture they live in. Anthropology is one area that needs to be discussed as it shows information pertaining to the evolution of human life. This important field shows how the globe has been populated along with studying of the human body. It can be credited to aiding in modern forensics thanks to the study of human bones and the human body to understand cultural and racial differences.

Social studies is also based on the education of economics, law, and political science. This teaches children how wealth is distributed in the world along with global issues, which is among the benefits of social studies. The recent recession is living proof that our society needs to understand how our spending habits impact the country and the entire world. Students need to learn about inflation, recession, unemployment, investments, and taxation in order to become contributing members of society. Law is another very important subject matter that our children must understand. It is needed to know the laws of your country in order to live by them. How does law enforcement work? How do I impact the city I live in? These are just some of the questions that will be answered when a student is able to spend time learning social studies.

How about understanding how life forms on our planet? This is another type of social studies called geography. Understanding geography helps to understand weather patterns, earthquakes, and many other things that can impact our lives in an instant. This is just one of the benefits of social studies.

There are many other areas of social studies and each of them has their own benefits. For instance, psychology, which is important to learn about to see how the human mind works. Students need to see how their brain works, especially as they are growing and dealing with things that can impact the chemicals and things in their bodies, which has a direct impact on their brain. Communication is another area that needs to be taught as it helps students learn how to communicate and to understand the language they speak.

With today’s global society, there are many …

On Knowing Everything

Aristotle has been described as the last person to know everything there was to be known. To belittle this achievement by supposing that in his day there wasn’t really that much to know is to underestimate the breadth of Aristotle’s knowledge. His writings embraced physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology.

Nowadays, the very idea of knowing everything seems beyond our comprehension. One need only point to Wikipedia to demonstrate how such encyclopedic knowledge far exceeds the capacity of any one individual. We may know a lot about our chosen field, but we should have no illusions: our ignorance vastly exceeds our knowledge.

But isn’t there some way to get a sense of the “big picture”? After all, everyone now carries a mental image of the earth as seen from outer space, a perspective unavailable to-even unimaginable for-people a hundred years ago. Surely there must be some way to achieve a comparable picture of western culture.

Happily, we have a tool not available to Aristotle. Statistics tells us that a carefully selected sample allows us to make valid generalizations about a population. Even if we can’t know all the individual trees, we can get a pretty fair idea of the forest by examining particular specimens.

So how do we choose the specimens for a large-scale perspective of western culture? The matrix-the grid pattern familiar from spreadsheets-offers a powerful tool. Imagine a grid with time on one axis and six categories of culture-Art, Literature, Music, Philosophy & Theology, Science & Mathematics, History & Social Sciences-on the other.

The century offers a convenient, if arbitrary, unit of measurement for time. But when we start trying to fill in the grid, it quickly becomes apparent that the century becomes impractical before around 1000 A.D. For the sake of convenience, we might want to consider Ancient Greece as a single unit, Ancient Rome as another unit, and the Middle Ages (say, the 5th through 10th centuries) as a third unit, before proceeding with one-hundred-year intervals.

Having established an empty grid, the next step is to fill as many of the boxes as we can with separate artists, composers, and authors, corresponding to the individual trees in our forest of western culture. These choices can become highly personal, but we need not claim that our choice is the best possible candidate for that box, only that it be a defensible nominee.

I offer my own grid not to insist on my choices but simply to illustrate the process. (Unfortunately, this site cannot reproduce a matrix, but by viewing the contents of each row you can get an idea of what it might look like.)

Ancient Greece: Parthenon; Homer; Sophocles; Plato; Aristotle; Pythagoras; Euclid; Herodotus

Ancient Rome: Colosseum; Virgil; Paul of Tarsus; Ptolemy; Caesar

5th-10th centuries: Book of Kells; Beowulf; Plainsong; St. Augustine; Gregory of Tours

11th century: Bayeux Tapestry; Song of Roland; Rise of polyphony; St. Anselm

12th century: St. Sernin de Toulouse; Chrétien …

Availing Premedical Courses

Students in the pre-medical courses have the opportunity to meet their educational goals at a world-class university. The program admits post-baccalaureate students seeking the laboratory science courses in biology, general and organic chemistry and physics required for the application to most medical, dental, veterinary, and related professional schools. The careers of Pre-medical courses provide a better scope to the interested students to get the numerous leadership positions within the organization allow students the opportunity to enhance their leadership skills for their future profession.

Education requirements

It is designed for students who have sufficient level of English but lack the knowledge of medicine related subjects. After completing the program they have the opportunity to apply for University admission. The Pre-Medical Program provides a smooth adaptation year for all the newcomers. You will meet international students from different cultures in small-size groups. You will get adapted to an independent way of life and you will learn how to prepare yourself for oral and written exams. There is no limit on the time frame during which the courses must be completed, but if you have been out of school for a few years, it is strongly recommended that you have some recent science coursework to demonstrate that you can still do well in a classroom setting.

Duration of the Course

The Pre-medical courses are the one mostly pursued by the interested aspirants to kick start off the career in the field of medical sciences. The duration of the course is mostly from 2 to 3 years which mostly provide you with a degree of Diploma in the field of medical sciences.

Subjects in the Pre-medical Courses

• Physics

• Anatomy

• Biochemistry

• General Biology

• General chemistry

• Genetics

• Biochemistry

Characteristics of a pre-medical aspirant

• Volunteer and job shadow in a variety of medical settings and specialties throughout the college and reputed university career (i.e. primary care physicians, specialties of interest, rural and urban settings, community clinics, dental centers, mission trips abroad, etc.).

• Be actively involved with activities demonstrating social conscience, compassion, and personal character to reflect to prove him.

• Show leadership ability to prove him in the course learning.

• Be active members of the college.

• Develop an ability to communicate with a variety of people in a variety of ways (i.e. written, verbal, non-verbal, technological, etc.) to develop his/her skills.

• Demonstrate the ability to effectively managing time.

Colleges and Universities

There are many medical and pre-medical colleges and universities helping the medical aspirants to get the career of the pre-medical course and to develop a sense of leadership skills and the best of medical specialties so that the medical candidate can sunshine in the colleges and universities. A pre-medical candidate is required to bestow best of quality education from the reputed teachers and professor to help the aspirant get the good grades so that he can outrage his/her career ahead in the form of the medical officer and other higher position.

In my view, …

The Principles And Objectives Of Material Handling

Materials handling is the art and science of moving, packing, storing and protecting of substances in any form until they are brought to further use. Like any other work material handling also works on certain principles and objectives. These have been defined and described in details us under:

  1. Planning Principle: It is imperative to have a definitive plan before executing any work. Hence, the planning principle involves the method and timeline of keeping or moving the material as per demand of the consumer.
  2. Standardization principle: When handling large scale of material handling, maintaining a standard is very important. Customization of material as per need can lead to wastage of the material thus resulting in dead stock. This is why the equipment, software and controls should be standardized in a pattern to provide maximum benefit.
  3. Work Principle: The main objective of using the work principle is to ensure usage of handling equipment for movement of large-scale products is to minimize the load of work on the manual labor without having to compromise on the quality of the material handling.
  4. Ergonomic principle: Ergonomics is the science that seeks to adapt work or working conditions to suit the abilities of the worker. Therefore, the ergonomic principle works on the objective of understanding the limitations of the manual labor and to ensure that maximum work can be extracted without having to put them in jeopardy.
  5. Space Utilization principle: Since one of the prospects of material handling is storing of goods, the space utilization principle is important aspect to be covered. The space is three-dimensional and is calculated in cubic space to adjust the material without breaking it. The placement of material should be effective and efficient so as to keep it intact and make space for other products as well.
  6. Unit Load Principle: While moving and storing the goods it is imperative to know the unit load of the goods so as to ensure that it is appropriately sized and configured in a way which achieves the flow and stock objectives at each stage in the supply chain.
  7. System Principle: The objective of the system principle in material handling entails the movement; storage, protection and packing of the material should all work in a synchronized manner to make sure that the workflow is not hindered.
  8. Environmental Principle: All the machinery required for the accomplishing the task of material handling should be keeping in mind the environment of the storage space. For example energy consumption should be considered as an environmental factor when performing the routine tasks of material handling. Effective usage of energy ensures least wastage.

7 Fascinating and Cool Campfire Facts for Kids

Campfires are the highlight of every summer camp experience and the glow of a warm fire provides the perfect opportunity for kids to enjoy time-honored traditions such as roasting marshmallows and telling ghost stories. Along with the traditional campfire stories, lessons can be learned about science and history that take on new meaning when they are taught outdoors. This season, arm your little camper with a few fascinating facts about campfires that they can share with their fellow camp friends.

1. Campfires Reach Extreme Temperatures

While everyone knows that fire is hot, campers are often surprised at the extreme temperatures a campfire can reach. It only takes a few hours for a campfire to reach 900 degrees Fahrenheit, which is hot enough to melt lead.

2. Coals Continue to Burn Underground

Many people bury their fire when they are done out of the belief that it will snuff out the flames. However, hot coals left beneath the ground can continue to smolder. If they are near tree roots or other flammable materials, then they can reignite and cause a forest fire. Coals can burn underground for an extremely long time. In Australia, Burning Mountain contains underground coal that has been smoldering for over 6,000 years.

3. Campfires Have a Long History

Evidence of what is believed to be the first-known fire has been discovered in Swartkrans, South Africa. There, charred antelope bones suggest that humans were cooking their meat over a fire as far back as 1.9 million years ago. Interestingly, it appears as though dried grass and leaves were used as kindling rather than wood.

4. A Campfire Has Many Purposes

Although campfires tend to be viewed as a gathering place for socializing, they have multiple purposes. For example, a fire can be built to signal for help when a person is lost in the woods. It can also be used to dry clothing, deter wildlife and burn refuse when there is not a trash receptacle available.

5. Netherlands Holds the Record for World’s Largest Bonfire

There are many different ways to build a campfire and some people take pride in building the best. The world’s biggest campfire had an overall volume of 151,288 ft³. It was lit on New Year’s Even in 2014 and burned for a total of five days.

6. Campfires are Color Coded

Those dancing, colorful flames are more than just fun to watch since the colors can tell you a lot about the temperature of the fire. The red light emitted comes from the cooler parts of the fire, and the bluish-white flames signal where the highest heat exists.

7. Most Wildfires Are Due to Human Error

Humans start approximately nine out of ten wildfires and campfires are the biggest culprits. For this reason, it is best to use existing fire rings when they are available and always make sure a fire is completely extinguished before leaving the site.

Using a campfire for warmth, food and survival is a tradition that dates back to …