The Principles And Objectives Of Material Handling

Materials handling is the art and science of moving, packing, storing and protecting of substances in any form until they are brought to further use. Like any other work material handling also works on certain principles and objectives. These have been defined and described in details us under:

  1. Planning Principle: It is imperative to have a definitive plan before executing any work. Hence, the planning principle involves the method and timeline of keeping or moving the material as per demand of the consumer.
  2. Standardization principle: When handling large scale of material handling, maintaining a standard is very important. Customization of material as per need can lead to wastage of the material thus resulting in dead stock. This is why the equipment, software and controls should be standardized in a pattern to provide maximum benefit.
  3. Work Principle: The main objective of using the work principle is to ensure usage of handling equipment for movement of large-scale products is to minimize the load of work on the manual labor without having to compromise on the quality of the material handling.
  4. Ergonomic principle: Ergonomics is the science that seeks to adapt work or working conditions to suit the abilities of the worker. Therefore, the ergonomic principle works on the objective of understanding the limitations of the manual labor and to ensure that maximum work can be extracted without having to put them in jeopardy.
  5. Space Utilization principle: Since one of the prospects of material handling is storing of goods, the space utilization principle is important aspect to be covered. The space is three-dimensional and is calculated in cubic space to adjust the material without breaking it. The placement of material should be effective and efficient so as to keep it intact and make space for other products as well.
  6. Unit Load Principle: While moving and storing the goods it is imperative to know the unit load of the goods so as to ensure that it is appropriately sized and configured in a way which achieves the flow and stock objectives at each stage in the supply chain.
  7. System Principle: The objective of the system principle in material handling entails the movement; storage, protection and packing of the material should all work in a synchronized manner to make sure that the workflow is not hindered.
  8. Environmental Principle: All the machinery required for the accomplishing the task of material handling should be keeping in mind the environment of the storage space. For example energy consumption should be considered as an environmental factor when performing the routine tasks of material handling. Effective usage of energy ensures least wastage.

7 Fascinating and Cool Campfire Facts for Kids

Campfires are the highlight of every summer camp experience and the glow of a warm fire provides the perfect opportunity for kids to enjoy time-honored traditions such as roasting marshmallows and telling ghost stories. Along with the traditional campfire stories, lessons can be learned about science and history that take on new meaning when they are taught outdoors. This season, arm your little camper with a few fascinating facts about campfires that they can share with their fellow camp friends.

1. Campfires Reach Extreme Temperatures

While everyone knows that fire is hot, campers are often surprised at the extreme temperatures a campfire can reach. It only takes a few hours for a campfire to reach 900 degrees Fahrenheit, which is hot enough to melt lead.

2. Coals Continue to Burn Underground

Many people bury their fire when they are done out of the belief that it will snuff out the flames. However, hot coals left beneath the ground can continue to smolder. If they are near tree roots or other flammable materials, then they can reignite and cause a forest fire. Coals can burn underground for an extremely long time. In Australia, Burning Mountain contains underground coal that has been smoldering for over 6,000 years.

3. Campfires Have a Long History

Evidence of what is believed to be the first-known fire has been discovered in Swartkrans, South Africa. There, charred antelope bones suggest that humans were cooking their meat over a fire as far back as 1.9 million years ago. Interestingly, it appears as though dried grass and leaves were used as kindling rather than wood.

4. A Campfire Has Many Purposes

Although campfires tend to be viewed as a gathering place for socializing, they have multiple purposes. For example, a fire can be built to signal for help when a person is lost in the woods. It can also be used to dry clothing, deter wildlife and burn refuse when there is not a trash receptacle available.

5. Netherlands Holds the Record for World’s Largest Bonfire

There are many different ways to build a campfire and some people take pride in building the best. The world’s biggest campfire had an overall volume of 151,288 ft³. It was lit on New Year’s Even in 2014 and burned for a total of five days.

6. Campfires are Color Coded

Those dancing, colorful flames are more than just fun to watch since the colors can tell you a lot about the temperature of the fire. The red light emitted comes from the cooler parts of the fire, and the bluish-white flames signal where the highest heat exists.

7. Most Wildfires Are Due to Human Error

Humans start approximately nine out of ten wildfires and campfires are the biggest culprits. For this reason, it is best to use existing fire rings when they are available and always make sure a fire is completely extinguished before leaving the site.

Using a campfire for warmth, food and survival is a tradition that dates back to …

Definition and History of Sociology

Definition

In a nutshell, sociology is the scientific study of society. Sociologists use the tools and methods of science to understand how and why humans behave the way they do when they interact together in groups. Though social groups – or societies – are made up of individual people, sociology is the study of the group rather than of the individual. When it comes to understanding how the individual human mind works, sociologists largely leave that up to psychologists.

Most people who call themselves “sociologists” work in universities and colleges, where they teach sociology and conduct sociological research. They ask a variety of questions about society, sometimes wanting answers just for the sake of curiosity; however, many times their findings are used to inform decisions by policymakers, executives, and other individuals. Many people who study sociology go on to conduct sociological research outside of academia, working for government agencies, think tanks, or private corporations. Accurate, systematic study of society is in one way or another useful to just about everyone.

Studying sociology, whether or not you call yourself a “sociologist,” means taking a particular view of the world: a view that sociologist C. Wright Mills called “the sociological imagination.” You have to be willing to set aside your ideas about how the social world should work so that you can see how it actually works. That doesn’t mean that sociologists don’t have personal values and opinions about the social world; they believe that to change the world, you first need to understand it.

History

Sociology is considered one of the social sciences – along with economics, psychology, anthropology, geography, and political science (among others). The social sciences were born in the 18th and 19th centuries, as people began applying the scientific method to human life and behavior. The world was changing dramatically and quickly as industrial production replaced agriculture, as democratic republics replaced monarchies, and as city life replaced country life. Realizing how many great insights science had lent regarding the natural world, people decided to try to use the same method to understand the social world.

Among the social sciences, sociology has always been unique in its ambition to understand the entire social world – considering all its aspects in combination rather than in isolation. It’s a daunting task, and one that sociologists are still struggling with today.

The most important early sociologists had clear ideas about how to study and understand society; these ideas still form the basis for much sociological investigation and discussion today. Karl Marx emphasized the importance of physical resources and the material world; he believed that conflict over resources is at the heart of social life. Emile Durkheim emphasized cooperation rather than conflict: He was interested in the shared norms and values that make cooperative social life possible. Max Weber took ideas from both Marx and Durkheim and argued that both conflict and cooperation, both material resources and cultural values are essential to social life.

Over the past century, sociologists have continued to debate …

His Most Famous Painting (The Science of Laziness) – Frank Stella

American painter and print maker, Frank Stella (born May 1936) specializes in the art of ‘Post-painterly Abstraction’ and ‘Minimalism.’ He has been a torchbearer of these innovative modern techniques that refuse to follow the conformist art. ‘Post-painterly Abstraction’ refers to a form of painting, which finds its origins in ‘Abstract Expressionism.’ It uniqueness is attributed to its representation of symmetric geometrical patterns, often set in vibrant color combinations, which could be as few as only two color tones. ‘Minimalism’ is an associate movement of ‘Post-painterly Abstraction,’ which is a form of visual art, where the fundamental features of the work are brought to fore. It belongs to the genre of ‘Modernism’ and carries its underlying methodology of ‘reduction.’ In 1984, Stella came up with his revolutionary work “The Science of Laziness (La scienza della pigrizia),” which is currently put up for display at the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC.

This large relief, “The Science of Laziness (La scienza della pigrizia),” is created over a canvas base with varied media. It makes the use of oil paint, enamel paint, which has the property of drying into a tough, yet shiny finish, and alkyd paint. Alkyd is a form of modified polyester, having a property of drying up on a glossy surface, but with greater flexibility in surface than in the case of enamel paint. Stella’s creative use of three types of paint was specifically designed to add grades in the appearance of colors and give the piece a truly eclectic appearance. Other media employed are etched magnesium, aluminum, and fiberglass (extremely thin glass in fibrous form, known for its strength and optical properties).

Etching is a process in which the surface of a metal is cut, using acid or mordant, to create engravings or different shapes. The prominent colors that adorn the background of “The Science of Laziness (La scienza della pigrizia)” are red, blue, green, and brown. On the left edge of the piece, a white semicircular disc is pasted with brush strokes of red and green. A conical, fan-like structure, with striation, is pasted towards the upper side of the disc. The left side of the ensemble features three cylindrical structures, radiating from the center, yet randomly placed one over the other. In line with Stella’s fascination with striped patterns, all three cylinders have the vertical bands of varying width. A flat and elongated abstract piece is glued to the top of the assemblage that covers the entire breadth of the work. It is painted in bluish-white paint, adding a masterstroke to the work.

Frank’s association with unorthodox art gave him the opportunity to experiment with his ripe imagination for creating some of the most arresting works such as “The Science of Laziness (La scienza della pigrizia,” being the best example.…