Teaching and Learning Modern Foreign Languages in the United Kingdom Part 1

I.1. Modern Foreign Languages within the curriculum: 1900 – 1988

I.1.a. A curriculum?

Between the1880s and 1904, many pupils had the opportunity of learning a Modern Foreign Language. The main language taught was French; however, German was also taught occasionally. This was the case in most schools existing at the time, although schooling was less compulsory, with compulsory education targeting only a range of students from six to twelve.

In 1904, the Board of Education suppressed Modern Foreign Languages from the curriculum. This lasted for almost 60 years. This had an impact on generations of British pupils, in so far that languages did not appear to be important; and therefore, for years, the British have argued that they were no good at learning them.

The 1944 Education Act was a turning point for the United Kingdom’s educational system. It made school compulsory between the ages of 5 and 15. The Ministry of Education, which had become the Department for Education and Science, introduced the “tripartite system”. Secondary schools were converted into ‘Grammar schools’ for the most able students, the senior schools turned into ‘Secondary Modern Schools’ and had the majority of the students on their roll, and ‘Secondary Technical Schools’ for those with a technical/scientific aptitude were created. The age at which the transition between primary and secondary schools was to be made became more definite in the 1980s, when the different age groups were divided into five Key Stages. Students had to start secondary school at the end of Key Stage 2.

In 1944, the Local Education Authorities provided the facilities and equipment for schools. They also acquired the resources needed and paid teachers. They were to make sure that there was enough space to accommodate all the students between the age of 5 and 15 within the catchment area. They also determined the length of the school day. They had an overview of the curriculum, but no control as such. Over time, the way Local Education Authorities administered their area was very different and the emphasis placed on certain types of school had a tremendous impact on the wider community.

The Secretary of State did not have the legal right to determine the contents of the curriculum. The Department for Education and Sciences’ requests, as far as the curriculum was concerned, were extremely limited except for Religious Studies (daily worship and religious education became statutory). The subjects taught, and the methods and contents, were left to the teaching profession and head teachers. This was the case until the 1980s, though Her Majesty’s Inspectorate and the Office for Standards in Education were inspecting and reporting about schools. No major change happened until 1988.

Therefore between 1904 and 1964, the teaching of languages as we perceive it in 2005 was very limited, in the few schools that offered this option. These were mainly grammar schools or public schools. Indeed, often students were taught only Greek or Latin. Where Modern Foreign Languages were made available, the main skills developed were reading …

Female Heroines of the Galaxy (in Memory of Carrie Fisher)

The Galaxy is full of hero’s, Luke Skywalker, Neo, Harry Potter, Peter Pan, Superman just to name a few but sometimes the galaxy needs some good heroines too. Let’s take a look and see how many women can kick butt in the top 10 besides Princess Leia:

1. Ray, a scavenger from Jakku helps to find Luke Skywalker in ‘Star Wars – The Force Awakens’ (Notice Ray doesn’t have a last name)

2. Carrie Fisher brought hope in her portrayal of Princess Leia in ‘Star Wars – A New Hope’ in the beginning of the franchise.

3. Natalie Portman’s Padme Amidala wasn’t just the Queen of Naboo, she also was a senator in the Galactic Republic and Luke and Leia’s mother, married to Anakin (Darth Vader)

4. Sigourney Weaver kicked Alien butt long before Will Smith as Ellen Ripley in four ‘Alien’ movies.

5. Jennifer Lawrance became a sensation around the world thanks to her role as Katniss Everdeen in ‘The Hunger Games’ and its three sequels.

6. Milla Jovovich starred as Leeloo, the titular Supreme Being, in 1997’s “The Fifth Element.” (The model-actress also headlines the sci-fi/horror “Resident Evil” franchise.)

7. Linda Hamilton starred as Sarah Connor in 1984’s “The Terminator” and 1991’s “Terminator 2: Judgment Day.” (The role has since been played by not one but two “Game of Throne” stars: Lena Headey on the 2008 Fox series “Terminator: The Sarah Connor Chronicles” and Emilia Clarke in 2015’s “Terminator Genisys.”)

8. Zoe Saldana is no stranger to the science-fiction genre. She stars as Uhura in the “Star Trek” franchise and portrays Neytiri in “Avatar” and its upcoming sequels. But we loved her best when she went from blue to green to play the alien assassin Gamora in 2014’s “Guardians of the Galaxy.” She’ll return to the role in “Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2.”

9. Neo may have thought she was a guy, but no, Carrie-Anne Moss’s Trinity was one lady-hacker who could kick some serious booty — and rock black leather like no other — in 1999’s “The Matrix.” (every guy wanted to be with her)

10. Felicity Jones stars as Jyn Erso, in ‘Rogue One: A Star Wars Story’ a thief and forger who’s recruited by the Rebel Alliance for a mysterious mission.

These women are only a handful of heroines around the galaxy who doesn’t need a hero to tag along and know how to take down bad guys with no problems what so ever.…

Job Opportunities for Candidates With a Physics Major

Candidates with a degree in physics have several job opportunities. Students taking up this subject not only excel in general physics, but also have a substantial knowledge in mathematics, calculus and computer science. Those who get a bachelor's degree look for entry-level positions. There are opportunities galore in manufacturing firms, pharmaceutical agencies, government establishments and academic institutions.

Jobs for physicists are suitable for those pupils who are outstanding in subjects like mathematics and science. To excel in this field, a candidate should have sound numerical skills and logic. One can have a rewarding career and work in a variety of fields such as education, research and also finance.

Let's find out what job opportunities are available for students doing a major in this discipline.

Electronic and Electrical Engineering

Scholars in the subject can work as electronic and electrical engineers who are responsible for assembling, assessing and analyzing electronic items. Other responsibilities are repairing gadgets and also preparing reports based on their testing and analysis. Companies dealing in items like computers, televisions or music systems look for people who have a bachelor's degree in the same discipline or engineering. One can find employment in engineering companies or telecommunications firms. Aspirants having the right qualification and experience are also assured of a handsome pay package.

Associate Health Physicists

These professionals conduct physical examinations, assist health physicists and also train technical staff. Besides having a major in the subject, one who is looking for such positions should know about research and diagnostics methods as well. Successful aspirants can work at research institutes, government bodies and health care institutions. The salary of such professionals can be up to $ 91,000 per annual.

Opportunities in Nuclear Physics

Doing higher studies will also help aspirants to work in the field of nuclear physics. Individuals will be responsible for the building and maintenance of nuclear power plants. They can also research and find out how nuclear science can be effectively utilized to improve health care services like detecting or viewing the inside anatomy of human body without undergoing a surgical procedure.

Teachers

Individuals can also work as high school teachers responsible for teaching students, preparing academic plans, and also involves themselves in educational conferences. Professionals can even coach students in private classes for additional income. To be eligible for the post of a teacher, one must have relevant degree and knowledge in computer science, mathematics and statistics. Candidates with a teaching certification will have an added advantage. For better prospects, one should have higher grades and adequate teaching experience.

Astronomer

Those who are interested in astronomy can apply their knowledge of math and physics to understand the functioning of the universe. Candidates in this field learn and gather in-depth knowledge about moon, starts, planets and sun. Astronomers are known to resolve issues related to satellite communications, navigation and space flight. Their primary responsibility involves finding methods and developing instruments to monitor and gather astronomical data. Astronomers generally conduct research, analyze huge data and report accordingly on their …

Best Place to Learn Programming

Nowadays, Programming is not just for computer geeks anymore, it has become a “must have skill” to stay in the market.

Coding is an incredibly much valuable skill for employers and members of any business team. With programming, you can make your own website, mobile app. If you learn to program, you can take your entrepreneurship skills to the next level.

Everyone holds the equal potential, and the chance to learn programming language easily. Today, we will show you a list of top websites that will help to learn to program.

Code Academy

Code Academy is one of the best places to learn programming languages. It is a well known first stop for those who are looking to begin their programming education.

Students can learn to code from their several different courses like:

  • HTML & CSS
  • JAVA
  • PHP
  • JavaScript
  • Make a Website
  • Ruby on Rails
  • Angular JS
  • SQl
  • Python
  • jQuery

MIT Open Courseware

If you want to learn to code in a high-class university level – then MIT Open Courseware is the best place for you. So take advantage of this opportunity and check out top courses like:

Introduction to Computer Science and Programming, Introduction to Programming in Java and Practical Programming in C.

Coursera

Coursera is an educational technology company that has offered more than 2,000 courses from 150 top institutions around the world.

If you want to improve the beauty of your CV, you can get a paid certificate from coursera. So learn to code from Coursera and become a top programmer.

edX

edX is the leading online-learning platform that is the open source instead of for-profit. Founded by the top universities like Harvard University and MIT in 2012. you should know that you’ll learn about the latest cutting-edge technologies and theories.

edX offers tons of free programs, including courses on programming.

Khan Academy

Khan Academy is actually my favorite to place to learn programming. If you are looking to learn to program in an interactive way then khan academy is the best place to do so. Offering free programs like:

HTML / CSS

JavaScript

SQL

Animation

and many more…

Udacity

Udacity is the project of Stanford University. It is one of many sites that make college courses available online for free. Stop thinking that how to learn programming.

Learn high-quality courses from the high quality website.

Udemy

Founded in 2010, Udemy is an online learning platform through which you can not only learn to program every programming language. But you can also learn almost every skill available on the internet. Yes! you heard it Right. There are many courses you have to pay for, also, there are several free programming courses, which are taught via interactive video lessons.

Google Android Course

Want to learn Android development, why not learn from the king of the internet Google. Offers free courses on mobile/android development (beginner to expert level). Android development is the trending skill that you can learn to get a well-paid job.

GitHub

Need a reference …

Science Experiments and Stem Activities for Kids

Science is an integral part of STEM learning that stands for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematic. STEM learning aims to promote a better understanding of these four disciplines in a more ‘Whole’-istic way. In fact, a simple task like using a wagon to move something from one place to another involves number of principles of science, mathematics, engineering and technology. The children can be benefited by STEM learning especially if it is organized in form of science camps etc.

STEM learning aims to make science fun, enlightening and easy for kids. There are numerous hands on activities that can be done in the science camp that would follow the basic principles of STEM to make the learning impactful and long lasting. Researchers have proved that practicality helps learn faster. Going by that, STEM activities done in a science camp would be easily remembered and the principle behind those activities would be understood without difficulty.

As STEM activities are project based activities, it becomes easy for children to comprehend the principles of science, technology, engineering and mathematics in an easy going manner, especially if it is done under the guidance of teachers or facilitators of a science camp. There are many activities that can be done to create a base for understanding key concepts that would be required later on in life as well. Such as:

Heavy And Light

In a science camp, kids would be able to learn basic concept of heavy and light through STEM activities. As STEM requires everyday item, using glass, water and couple of oranges the concept of floating could be explained. Why heavy things go down the bottom of the glass and why light things float can also be explained.

Natural Phenomenon

Kids are curious and everything fascinates them. There are number of natural phenomenon that can be practically explained to them through STEM activities in a science camp.

Rain can also be demonstrated through some shaving foam, water and colour. This activity would fascinate children and would also be a great learning experience for them. they can in fact learn the concept of how rain is formed, how clouds are formed and so much more, which is very fascinating.

Building From Scratch

As STEM activities require the kids to use concepts of all four disciplines, such activities in a science camp would be of extreme importance. Child would do measurements, procure things of which a particular thing can be constructed, and brain storm to decide about the size etc. all this would require considerable amount of knowledge of STEM concepts. Activities such as building a bridge from sticks or Lego blocks or straws or designing a race track would come under this.

Science Of Water

Water is kids’ favorite. Period. There are number of activities designed around water, to make them understand various concepts of science.

E.g. States of Water through science experiments kids’ would understand all three forms of water i.e. gas, liquid and solid. How much temperature is required for it to …

The Science of Getting Rich – Lesson 1

Civilized society has a strange attitude towards talking about money, making money, growing wealthy. Here, most of us have an 'acquired' personal stance on how we think and talk about becoming rich. Most of us feel that even speaking about money is vulgar and some, genetically stuffy part of us, considers it in bad taste! To study it – well, most of us consider it 'bad form'. Our distaste is partly predicated on society's reflection and dates from pre-Victorian times. While those in the States are raised on the idea of ​​the 'self-made man' (and woman), somehow we too have become decidedly prudish about the subject of building wealth. Teacher, speaker, and entrepreneur, Bob Proctor addresses this attitude in his "Science of Getting Rich" Lesson Series. He takes the subject out of the back closet, shakes out the dust, and gives us a good look at what we have been willingly to look at 'out loud'. He follows in the footsteps of such remarkable teachers such as Earl Nightingale and Napoleon Hill, carving a new path that is both a pleasure and a must in your journey to success.

In his first Lesson, Proctor is directly in immediately tying the Law of Attraction (The Secret) together with the idea of ​​attracting wealth. He clearly states, "Money on its own is either good nor bad. It is a means to an end." He points out that people who are wealthy understand '… and use the Law of Attraction in their daily lives. The millionaires understand that abundance is there for the taking – there is enough for everyone. We can all be rich. "What a magnificent concept! It's not a dog eat dog world, or a race with all the cheese going to the biggest rat. out and take it. Then why do not we? Proctor insist it is only because we have not learned the "correct thought process to attract wealth." He points out what I started this blog with – we are uncomfortable with the idea of not only can we be rich, but that we deserve to be rich! Wealthy people know that it requires great wealth to reach out beyond one's own immediate circumstances to have and make an impact on the world. starting a private charity, or even supporting the efforts of others?

Then you must confront this attitude and as Proctor says, "Make the decision to extend beyond your physical boundaries – to increase your service to a greater audience in need of their product or service." "Invariably riches will come your way." Think about it! In this business opportunity lies the means for you to think beyond your dreams, as well as act upon your dreams. You must no longer stop at – "That's a nice dream, but I do not have the money to do it."; You can turn the dream into a living, breathing reality if you think about what you really want to and can do with wealth. It is not …

How to Fool a Breathalyzer

Want to trick a breath machine into a low test result? Or make sure that you’re not causing a false high reading? Not that difficult, says a law firm of San Diego DUI attorneys and lawyers: just control your breathing.

The simple fact is that these breath machines which determine guilt or innocence in DUI cases are not exactly the reliable devices that law enforcement would have us believe. There are dozens of factors that can cause false test results. An example of that unreliability is the fact that the results will vary depending upon the breathing pattern of the person being tested. This has been confirmed in a number of scientific studies.

In one, for example, a group of men drank moderate doses of alcohol and their blood-alcohol levels were then measured by gas chromatographic analysis of their breath. The breathing techniques were then varied. The results indicated that holding your breath for 30 seconds before exhaling increased the blood-alcohol level by 15.7%. Hyperventilating for 20 seconds immediately before the analyses of breath, on the other hand, decreased the level by 10.6%. Keeping the mouth closed for five minutes and using shallow nasal breathing resulted in increasing the blood-alcohol level by 7.3%, and testing after a slow, 20-second exhalation increased levels by 2%. (“How Breathing Techniques Can Influence the Results of Breath-Alcohol Analyses”, 22(4) Medical Science and the Law 275.)

Dr. Michael Hlastala, Professor of Physiology, Biophysics and Medicine at the University of Washington has gone farther and concluded:

“By far, the most overlooked error in breath testing for alcohol is the pattern of breathing… The concentration of alcohol changes considerably during the breath… The first part of the breath, after discarding the dead space, has an alcohol concentration much lower than the equivalent BAC (blood-alcohol concentration). Whereas, the last part of the breath has an alcohol concentration that is much higher than the equivalent BAC. The last part of the breath can be over 50% above the alcohol level… Thus, a breath tester reading of 0.14% taken from the last part of the breath may indicate that the blood level is only 0.09%.” 9(6) The Champion 16 (1985).

Many police officers know this. They also know that if the machine contradicts their judgement that the person they arrested is intoxicated, they won’t look good. So when they tell the arrestee to blow into the machine’s mouthpiece, they’ll yell at him, “Keep breathing! Breathe harder! Harder!” As Professor Hlastala has found, this ensures that the breath captured by the machine will be from the bottom of the lungs, near the alveolar sacs, which will be richest in alcohol. With the higher alcohol concentration, the machine will give a higher — but inaccurate — reading.…

Significance of Continuing Education for Nurses

In a world where different industries continue to become more and more competitive, many employers select potential employees with a much higher form of education. The medical industry, particularly nursing, is one of these industries that require more advanced education. In this regard, continuing education for nurses continues to become a trend these days. This program is vital because nurses are the ones who often speak to patients and acquiring important educational content can be of great help for them to become more successful in their career.

Generally, continuing education for nurses is mandatory for a license renewal. This program is based on contact hours or units. In most states, the program usually works for 10 contact hours, which is 10 hours long, and it must be completed prior to applying for a license renewal. Prerequisites for this kind of program include a high school diploma or education equivalent such as diploma in nursing from an acknowledged training program, associate degree in nursing from a recognized institution, and Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) from an accredited university or college. Some of the courses offered in this program are Stroke: A Comprehensive In-depth Review, Stroke: First Response, Stroke: Managing Patient Recovery, Diabetes, Type 1, and Nursing Case Management. In connection with these courses, it is essential to pick a nursing institution that offers interesting course materials and challenging learning experience.

Continuing education for nurses is designed to refresh the knowledge and develop the skills of nurses. It also helps nurses become up-to-date on new medical or nursing information. In addition, courses offered in this program are ideal not only for nurses. Many courses are also perfect for other busy professionals like caregivers who seek convenient learning process to prepare themselves for the examination required for licenser.

Before pursuing continuing education for nurses, you need to be aware of the legislature of your state first. In present days, some states no longer consider this kind of program as a requirement for a license renewal. This is because the nursing boards of these states no longer believe that the program is necessary to increase nursing competence.

On the other hand, many other states continue to keep their commitment with the program. Since requirements vary for every state, institutional policy, and area of specialty, it is best to make relevant inquiries regarding the education itself as well as the learning process. Furthermore, reaching out to the Board of Nursing of your state is a brilliant idea to become a well-informed candidate. After acquiring pertinent information, the next best thing to do is review the course you are taking before paying.

Many nursing institutions allow you to read a course without making any registration or payment. If you are certain about the course, you may take the examination. After passing the examination, you may finally register and pay for your credit.…

Alternatives to Scientific Studies

There are at least two alternatives to scientific studies. One is to ignore the science and go straight for myth, magic and superstition. The other is to start with a scientific study and then twist it to suit your own purposes. This second appears regularly in the world of science and, unfortunately, is becoming more common.

Take the example of mercury amalgam fillings in teeth. In Britain and America a good proportion of the population has already got these ‘silver’ fillings, and it would be reassuring for them to know that there were no problems associated with such a procedure, even though it means having mercury (a known poison) in your mouth, often for many years. A recent study, we are told, says exactly that: we have nothing to worry about.

Let’s look at this Study. It came out in 2006 and involved a group of 1,000 school children, over a period of 3 years. Hmm, pretty impressive. However, there are several things to note. One is that the age range was 7-10 years old. That tells us something about these children, but there is no way to predict their future health. We can’t be sure what will happen to them from the ages of, say, 17-20 or 27-30, and we certainly can’t work out from this study what is happening to 27 year olds right now. In my case, I’m a good deal older, and I want to know what effect the fillings are having on the 47-50 year olds, or even the 57-60 year olds. Trying to extrapolate from this one Study to that age group is silly but, amazingly, that is exactly what some writers have done. One, a columnist in the Guardian newspaper in London, has tried to assert that this study is ‘reassuring’ for all age groups.

Worse, though the Study was limited to a small geographical area, the writer tries to say that the results apply to all school children, everywhere. Would you believe that? Young people in China and Japan have a completely different health profile to those in Europe. Why, there are studies that show children in the South of England have a different experience to those in the North of England. This writer ignores that. The Study shows these children are healthy, he says, therefore all children will be healthy. No, that’s Bad Science.

There’s more. If this Study looked at the children’s health, you might imagine that when they met up with the scientists conducting the work, (every two months, as it happens), the man in (or woman) in the white coat would be writing down facts about the child’s health on their clipboard. If the child said they had headaches, or infections, or sleepless nights, the information would be noted, right? Not a bit of it. The Study was focussed on neurological development, which meant, basically, three tests: one, was the application of IQ tests on a regular basis; the second area involved brain scans, MRI’s and stuff like …

25 One-Liner Frog Jokes – Can be Used on Any Occasion

Frogs like any helpless animals have had a series of jokes told about them. They are probably not the funniest jokes ever told, but they can sometimes put a smile on the face of a frog collector. Sometimes, however the frog collector may not see the funny side. Here goes, have a laugh and don’t take yourself too seriously.

1. Why did the frog make so many mistakes? It jumped to the wrong conclusions.

2. What do frogs play at recess? Jumping jacks and leapfrog.

3. Why did the frog read Sherlock Holmes? He liked a good croak and dagger.

4. Who is smarter, a chicken or a frog? A frog of course

How do you know? Well, I’ve never heard of Kentucky Fried Frog.

5. What is a frog’s favorite snack? Cheese and croakers.

6. Why did the motorcycle rider buy a pet frog? To pick the flies out from between his teeth.

7. Why are frogs good at baseball? Because they catch a lot of fly balls.

8. Why does a frog stand in the outfield? So he won’t miss a fly.

9. What do you get if you cross a science fiction film with a toad? Star Warts.

10. What do you call a one hundred year old frog? An old croak.

11. What did the frog dress up as at Halloween? A prince.

12. Where does the frog borrow money? From the river bank.

13. Why couldn’t the snake talk? He had a frog in its throat.

14. Which frog has horns? A bull frog.

15. What is a snake’s favorite weather? Cool and froggy.

16. What is a toad’s favorite sweet? Lollihops.

17. What is a frog’s favorite cheer? Hop hop hooray.

18. What goes dot-dot-croak, dot-dot-croak? Morse toad.

19. How deep is a frog pond? Kneedeep, kneedeep

20. What do you call a frog with no legs? It does not matter – he won’t come anyway.

21. What’s green and dangerous? A frog with a hand grenade.

22. What’s white on the outside and green on the inside? A frog sandwich.

23. What does a bankrupt frog say? Baroke, baroke baroke.

24. What’s green, green, green, green? A frog rolling down the hill.

25. What is the thirstiest frog in the world? The one who drinks Canada dry.

Frog collectors of the world unite and enjoy your amazing collections!…