How to Fool a Breathalyzer

Want to trick a breath machine into a low test result? Or make sure that you’re not causing a false high reading? Not that difficult, says a law firm of San Diego DUI attorneys and lawyers: just control your breathing.

The simple fact is that these breath machines which determine guilt or innocence in DUI cases are not exactly the reliable devices that law enforcement would have us believe. There are dozens of factors that can cause false test results. An example of that unreliability is the fact that the results will vary depending upon the breathing pattern of the person being tested. This has been confirmed in a number of scientific studies.

In one, for example, a group of men drank moderate doses of alcohol and their blood-alcohol levels were then measured by gas chromatographic analysis of their breath. The breathing techniques were then varied. The results indicated that holding your breath for 30 seconds before exhaling increased the blood-alcohol level by 15.7%. Hyperventilating for 20 seconds immediately before the analyses of breath, on the other hand, decreased the level by 10.6%. Keeping the mouth closed for five minutes and using shallow nasal breathing resulted in increasing the blood-alcohol level by 7.3%, and testing after a slow, 20-second exhalation increased levels by 2%. (“How Breathing Techniques Can Influence the Results of Breath-Alcohol Analyses”, 22(4) Medical Science and the Law 275.)

Dr. Michael Hlastala, Professor of Physiology, Biophysics and Medicine at the University of Washington has gone farther and concluded:

“By far, the most overlooked error in breath testing for alcohol is the pattern of breathing… The concentration of alcohol changes considerably during the breath… The first part of the breath, after discarding the dead space, has an alcohol concentration much lower than the equivalent BAC (blood-alcohol concentration). Whereas, the last part of the breath has an alcohol concentration that is much higher than the equivalent BAC. The last part of the breath can be over 50% above the alcohol level… Thus, a breath tester reading of 0.14% taken from the last part of the breath may indicate that the blood level is only 0.09%.” 9(6) The Champion 16 (1985).

Many police officers know this. They also know that if the machine contradicts their judgement that the person they arrested is intoxicated, they won’t look good. So when they tell the arrestee to blow into the machine’s mouthpiece, they’ll yell at him, “Keep breathing! Breathe harder! Harder!” As Professor Hlastala has found, this ensures that the breath captured by the machine will be from the bottom of the lungs, near the alveolar sacs, which will be richest in alcohol. With the higher alcohol concentration, the machine will give a higher — but inaccurate — reading.…

Significance of Continuing Education for Nurses

In a world where different industries continue to become more and more competitive, many employers select potential employees with a much higher form of education. The medical industry, particularly nursing, is one of these industries that require more advanced education. In this regard, continuing education for nurses continues to become a trend these days. This program is vital because nurses are the ones who often speak to patients and acquiring important educational content can be of great help for them to become more successful in their career.

Generally, continuing education for nurses is mandatory for a license renewal. This program is based on contact hours or units. In most states, the program usually works for 10 contact hours, which is 10 hours long, and it must be completed prior to applying for a license renewal. Prerequisites for this kind of program include a high school diploma or education equivalent such as diploma in nursing from an acknowledged training program, associate degree in nursing from a recognized institution, and Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) from an accredited university or college. Some of the courses offered in this program are Stroke: A Comprehensive In-depth Review, Stroke: First Response, Stroke: Managing Patient Recovery, Diabetes, Type 1, and Nursing Case Management. In connection with these courses, it is essential to pick a nursing institution that offers interesting course materials and challenging learning experience.

Continuing education for nurses is designed to refresh the knowledge and develop the skills of nurses. It also helps nurses become up-to-date on new medical or nursing information. In addition, courses offered in this program are ideal not only for nurses. Many courses are also perfect for other busy professionals like caregivers who seek convenient learning process to prepare themselves for the examination required for licenser.

Before pursuing continuing education for nurses, you need to be aware of the legislature of your state first. In present days, some states no longer consider this kind of program as a requirement for a license renewal. This is because the nursing boards of these states no longer believe that the program is necessary to increase nursing competence.

On the other hand, many other states continue to keep their commitment with the program. Since requirements vary for every state, institutional policy, and area of specialty, it is best to make relevant inquiries regarding the education itself as well as the learning process. Furthermore, reaching out to the Board of Nursing of your state is a brilliant idea to become a well-informed candidate. After acquiring pertinent information, the next best thing to do is review the course you are taking before paying.

Many nursing institutions allow you to read a course without making any registration or payment. If you are certain about the course, you may take the examination. After passing the examination, you may finally register and pay for your credit.…

Letters of Reference Defined

As I point out on the main page of my recommendation and reference resource Website, there is a great deal of general confusion about the differences and similarities between letters of reference and letters of recommendation. For instance; which is which, and why? How are they different? In what ways are they similar?

It's confusing enough for the average person who only has to write one of these letters every once in a while. However, when you look into it in-depth as I have, and realize that many of the so-called "experts" do not even know the differences between a reference letter and a recommendation letter, the general state of confusion is very understandable .

Based on further research into the subject, I define a "letter of reference" as one that is normally more general in nature than a letter of recommendation and IS NOT addressed to a specific requestor. Typically, "letters of reference" are addressed as; "To Whom It May Concern" or "Dear Sir / Madam".

The most common letters of reference are:

o Employment-related – general reference letter

o College-related – general reference letter

o Character reference letter – general-purpose personal reference

o General reference letter – various subjects

EMPLOYMENT-RELATED Reference Letter

These are more general letters that are often requested by employees when they leave the employ of an organization. Usually factual in nature, they are usually addressed, "To Whom It May Concern" and provide basic information such as: work history, dates of employment, positions held, educational credentials, etc.

These reference letters sometimes contain a general statement (as long as a positive one can be made), about the employee's work record with the company that they are leaving. Employees often submit these letters with job applications in the hope that the letter will reflect favorably on their chances for the new position.

COLLEGE-RELATED Reference Letter

These letters are very similar to college-related letters of recommendation, EXCEPT that they are not addressed to a specific individual or requestor. In the college and university context they are typically addressed to officials such as: Director, Admissions or Chairman, Scholarship Selection Committee, etc.

These college-related letters can be as specific as a recommendation letter when it comes to describing the subject / person about which the letter is written, but they are more general / generic in terms of targeted addressees. That's because at the time they are written it is often not clear exactly to which businesses or institutions they will be sent. For example, a person plans to apply to a number of colleges but when the letter is written, the specific colleges are unknown.

CHARACTER-RELATED Reference Letter

Character reference letters are always written about a specific person by someone who knows them fairly well, and usually focus on a person's general personality characteristics. They are often used in business and community service situations. Typically, a person will ask for a general character reference letter when they are leaving a company or service organization.

The focus of character reference …

Students Content Insurance

Up until a few years ago, I was a university student myself. I lived in the halls of residence for the first year, and then onto rented student accommodation for my remaining 2 years. During these 3 years I realised how valuable student contents insurance can be. The weekend you move into the halls of residence is a crazy one. People are going back and forth, and carrying their valuables back and forth. Unfortunately for someone in the adjacent building, a thief choose to strike at this vulnerable time, and pretty much managed to clear out what had been brought into a student rooms, whilst they were downstairs in the car park, picking up more items to bring to their new residence. Lucky for this student, they had students contents cover, so they were protected, but it was obviously still an issue they would have rather not encountered. Unfortunately, this appears to be a regular thing among student accommodation across the country, as students valuables are at a higher risk of theft here, than at the family home. In fact, recent studies have stated that one in three university students are the victim of crime each year.

When students move away from home, and into student accommodation, they like to bring pretty much everything along with them, so that they have maximum comfort, and are surrounded with the things that their accustomed to, so as to make their stay as easy as possible. In student accommodation, you can typically find all types of items, such as home entertainment systems, clothes, furnishings, money, credit & debit cards, phones, library books and other materials on loan from the university, CD’s, DVD’s, Blu-Ray’s and other media, computer equipment, mp3 players, bicycles, freezers filled with food, microwaves, and even bar fridges.

Fortunately, all of these items can be covered under a good student possessions insurance policy. Not only can the above items be covered, but portable computer equipment, locks and keys, the information stored on your home entertainment equipment or phone, other portable possessions, and even the food within your freezer following its mechanical failure, and your legal responsibilities to 3rd parties as a tenant may also be covered via students possessions insurance.

As can be seen from this list, it’s of paramount importance that all students search for student contents insurance before moving into any student accommodation, so that they can protect the items that are valuable to them with a suitable insurance policy. Being a student, the person might not want the added expense, especially when their funds are limited during this time, but it truly is worth the expense, and if the student shops around, they can easily find a student contents insurance policy which fits their needs, as well as their budget.

If the student is worried about the cost of student contents insurance, with some insurance policy providers they are able to specifically select only the items they want covered, which should lower the premium some amount, and they …

The HR Profession

Why would anyone want a career in human resources (HR)? Many believe that HR professionals' major purpose is to deal with a lot of administrative work and deal with resolving employee conflicts – how boring and stressful. That may have been the sentiment five or ten years ago, may be partly true for some roles – but not all.

Some people, current HR professionals or others who witness the work of HR professional may still ask the question today. However, the majority of human resources professionals will tell you that, like any career, you have challenging responsibilities and you have the "necessary" responsibilities. The idea is to do the "necessary" responsibilities effectively and efficiently to allow focus and energy on those challenging projects and responsibilities.

I believe that the purpose of the Human Resources profession is to help companies achieve their objectives through the management of their most important assets, the people who work for them. This is implemented primarily through talent management (hiring, developing and retaining).

Because of this purpose, the field of Human Resources has been rated as one of the most rewarding and fastest growing professions in the United States. Recently MONEY Magazine and Salary.com reviewed hundreds of jobs, considering their growth, pay, stress-levels and other factors, and Human Resources Manager was rated as number 20 of the top 50 jobs with a 13% 10-year growth rate. http://money.cnn.com/magazines/moneymag/bestjobs/2009/full_list/index.html

While I was completing my graduate degree (MS, Human Resources Design) at Claremont Graduate University's School of Behavioral and Organizational Sciences, I wrote the following as part of an organizational development team paper. "… the profession has been tasked to take on greater roles and responsibilities within organizations as organizations are faced with constant change – change such as globalization of markets, off-shoring, constant changes in employment law and regulations, changing customer demands and increasing competition. To assist companies in their strategic goals, the need for well-educated, competent Human Resources professionals continues to grow. " I wrote this almost three years ago and the comments are even more pertinent given our current economic climate. Whether you are currently seeking your first position in the field or are looking for your next job, keep in mind that you bring a unique perspective to organizations, be proud and seize the opportunities – as they are many. Strive to be that unique business professional that brings the HR perspective to the table, aligning the business strategy with people implications. …

Coach Was Color-Blind, He Only Wanted to Know If You Could Play Basketball

Glory Road – 2 Stars (Average)

Basketball Coach Don Haskins does not have to wait for his legend to happen. He is a member of the Texas Sports Hall of Fame and the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame.

Few today would remember Don Haskins. He was the coach at Texas Western in 1966 when his 27-1 team played Adolph Rupp’s 27-1 University of Kentucky Wildcats for the NCAA title.

Nothing too unusual about that, except that Haskins would become the first coach in NCAA history to start an all-African American lineup when the Miners squared off against Rupp’s all-white Kentucky team that featured two players who would become well-known in the NBA pro league: Pat Riley and Louie Dampier.

Remember these names: Bobby Joe Hill, David Lattin, Orsten Artis, Willie Worsley and Harry Flournoy during February, Black History Month. They were the starting lineup for Texas Western when the Miners won the NCAA championship against an all-white Kentucky team, 72-65.

I would graduate from Michigan State University two months after Texas Western won the title, and would not be aware of just how historic this event was. My high school and college cross-country and track teams were integrated. Kentucky would not even offer African Americans basketball scholarships, and there were many other colleges and universities which excluded African American players in 1966.

There was a lot of hatred in the South at that time. Heck, there was a lot hatred everywhere, but not in Don Haskins’ will to win for Texas Western, known today as UTEP, the University of Texas at El Paso. Haskins was color-blind and simply put the best players on the floor to compete.

Haskins recruited the best players, nothing else mattered. Not even the lousy treatment and death threats both Haskins and his players received from die-hard, ignorant, bigoted Texas Western boosters and donors. They sing a different tune in Texas today, especially at the University of Texas.

Glory Road in 2006 retold the story of Don Haskins and Texas Western. Josh Lucas played the role of Don Haskins, Derek Luke played Bobby Joe Hill and John Voight played Adolph Rupp. It is not one of the best movies ever made, but the story of Texas Western is on par with other great victories in sports history, including the 1980 U. S. Hockey team winning the Gold Medal in the Olympics. Contrary to the movie version, the title game was not as big an upset as was depicted. Texas Western had an excellent team, as evidenced by its No. 3 ranking the final polls that year. Haskins was not the first coach to play African Americans, Texas Western had African American players on its roster before Haskins arrived.

Haskins was the first to start an all-African American lineup in the NCAA title game, and it is also true that Texas Western was the first college in a Southern state to integrate its athletic teams. Good for Texas Western.

Glory Road had a good message of …

Dr Hazel Mubako A Jamaican African Zimbabwe Connection

Dr. Hazel Barbara Mubako nee Christie known by the pet name Peggy was born in Rosetta District, St. D'Acre, located in The Dry Harbor Mountains of, St. Ann Jamaica West Indies, to Caroline nee Gooden and David Christie. In her early years she attended the Charlton Primary School in Alexandria. Ann, and later joined the first batch of girls at the Holmwood Technical High School in 1961. At Holmwood she was a sports enthusiast attending some medals in athletics. Hazel was an avid reader, a gardener, and she enjoyed sewing and cooking much of which was taught by her mother.

She migrated to England in 1966 and studied as a registered nurse at the Dreadnought Seamens Hospital. She met her husband Ambassador Simbi Mubako in 1968, while he was studying law at the London School of Economics, and they were united in marriage in 1970.

In the next year she migrated to Zambia to join her husband who became a lecturer in Laws at the University of Zambia. Hazel registered for a science degree and graduated with honors. In 1976 the couple moved to the University of Southampton, England, where Hazel was to study medicine while her husband was teaching Law at the same University. By that time she was a mother of three children. Permanent her family responsibilities she managed to qualify as doctor in record time.

In 1980 the couple moved to Zimbabwe where her husband was appointed a cabinet minister by President Robert Mugabe as the country attained its independence, and he served as a minister for ten years assuming several different positions including Minister of Justice and Constitutional Affairs and Minister of Home Affairs. He also served as judge of the High Court. Dr. Simbi Mubako was appointed Zimbabwe's Ambassador to the United States by President Robert Mugabe in 1999. The Mubako's then temporarily moved to the United States in 1999 and Dr. Hazel was a United Nations examining physician as she served with her husband during his five year tenure as ambassador.

She devoted her later years to fighting AIDS and worked at the Crisis Center with patients affected by HIV, women in crisis, and rape victims. Dr. Hazel is well known as "Mother and Doctor" to many.

Dr. Hazel Barbara Mubako lost her battle to breast cancer on the May 27, 2013, at Westend Hospital in Harare Zimbabwe. She was 65. Dr Hazel was laid to rest at Glen Forest National Park Zimbabwe. Her funeral service was well represented by the Vice-President and several government ministers, members of the United Nations, colleges in the medical fraternity, several of her former patients, members of the Zimbabwe African National Union-Patriot Front (ZANU-PF) Family and several friends. Messages of support also came from many other institutions including, the local West Indian Community; Ambassadors and staff of Zimbabwe Embassies in Russia, Sweden, South Sudan and Belgium; Vice Chancellor and Law faculty, Midlands State University; And Harare international Festival of Arts (HIFA).

She is survived by her husband, Professor- …

USC Pharmacy School Application Requirements and Tips From an Accepted Student

I will begin with the statistics of the accepted students into the University of Southern California Doctor of Pharmacy program for 2009. 460 students were offered interviews from a pool of over 2000 applicants. 240 students are accepted (11 students from out-of-state schools), and the expected class size for 2009 is 190. One must note that USC offers their undergraduates the opportunity of guaranteed admission as long as they complete their requirements in the TAP program (these students take up a large chunk of seats available for other applicants).

Obtaining a Bachelor’s degree is now a requirement for admission at USC. The minimum GPA requirement is a 3.0 (the average GPA of accepted students is a 3.60). Since USC does not require taking the PCAT, other admission criteria is weighed more heavily (GPA, interview performance, extracurricular activities, personal statements, etc.).

For the application process, it is very important for you to note that the University of Southern California sends out interview invitations on a rolling basis, so it is important that you turn in your PharmCAS application and supplemental application as soon as possible. The deadlines for both are early November, but I highly recommend that you turn both in no latter than early August (I turned in my applications by mid-July, just 1.5 months after the application was made available).

At your interview, you will be asked questions by a current pharmacy school student as well as a faculty member. Think of it more of a conversation where you also ask questions back to both of them. When you first arrive at the interview session, you will be greeted by several current pharmacy students, who do a great job of calming you down prior to your interview. Take this opportunity to ask questions and warm up your oral communication skills. Do not worry to much about the “essay” portion as it is just a test of how well you take notes off of a random article that you read. BE SURE to follow all directions provided to you as it is also a test on how well you pay attention to details.

Here are the pre-requisites for USC’s pharmacy program:

Calculus (for science majors)

Statistics (non-business)

Physics w/lab (science/life science majors- thermodynamics & Electromagnetism recommended)

General Biology w/lab (excludes human anatomy & physiology, botany, and microbiology)

Mammalian Physiology w/lab (human preferred-excludes plant, cell and marine physiology)

Microbiology w/lab (fundamentals of microbiology for science majors)

Molecular or Cell Biology(for science majors-one upper division course)

General Chemistry w/lab (for science majors-include inorganic & qualitative analysis)

Organic Chemistry w/lab (for science majors)

Biochemistry (for science majors one upper division course)

Human Behavior (General Psychology or Introductory Sociology)

Microeconomics

For Internationals (holders of foreign US bachelor’s equivalent):

English (expository writing)

Interpersonal Communications or Public Speaking

For specific course equivalencies from your college, please check the forms available from USC’s website.

The Pharm.D. program at USC is a 4 year program. USC is a private school, and our estimated tuition and cost of living …

Alan Simpson’s "The Marks of An Educated Man" – A Review

In his essay, “The Marks of An Educated Man,” Alan Simpson writes that the training of the mind will help an individual achieve higher knowledge skills. The best results of liberal education cannot be achieved until the mind is trained to think clearly. Without proper brain-training a true liberal education cannot take place.

Since everyone’s brain does not function the same, the same amount of knowledge may not be present in two different individuals. Simpson talks of utilizing everyone’s capacity to think and examine life firmly, therefore making a true liberal education possible, which in turn allows for progress and reform in our educational system.

One of the main thoughts that Alan Simpson presents is the idea of not being afraid to make changes, especially if they will lead to progress in our traditional systems. Simpson goes on to state that a characteristic skill of an educated man is his ability to recognize phony doctrines. A certain amount of skepticism is needed to combat the fact-filled scam artists and fools that populate the earth today.

Without a proper education, we make ourselves more gullible to false teachings. The educated man has tried to develop a critical faculty for general use, and likes to think himself an excellent judge of phoniness. Having doubt allows a person to expand his or her insights on a subject. A person who seeks after a good education will usually ask questions and make sure he or she is given a good answer before being taken in by something false.

The fools, scam artists, and frauds in this wold can mislead others by presenting false messages. The majority who practice this are nothing more than blatant liars, but feel they have a sanctity about them that puts them above everyone else. These so called “authorities” are nothing more than fact finders and very often end up getting caught in their own traps.

Without a liberal education they cannot combine knowledge, skills, an standards. They are for the most part affected by the environment and the media. Lacking a liberal education makes them very open to scams and they are definitely not analyzing, praying, or thinking over situations as they should. These are the victims of prideful scam artists.

Having good liberal education skills can be a preventive device against highly educated scam artists. Shams are a reality to us even in higher education brackets. They surround us everywhere. From the professor to the scientist, both have been known to use invalid and shameful speech. Although persons at the university level can be taken in by shams, people who have little or no educational background are especially prone and will almost certainly fall prey to shams.

University students are influenced by professors and clergymen, but people in the outside of college world are largely influenced simply by what they read, view, and hear.

Simpson’s essay reveals that possessing liberal education skills enables a person to recognize false doctrines. Non-educated people will allow an individual to influence them …

5 Accredited Ultrasound Technician Schools in Orange County CA or Nearby

With a population of more than three million people, Orange County, California is a delightful mix of beaches, parks and well-known cities like Santa Ana, Newport Beach and Anaheim. It has a strong economy, and the County of Orange serves as the regional service provider for public health. Diagnostic Medical Sonographers will find a growing healthcare system offering plenty of employment opportunities and a community with a strong interest in healthy living.

Sonography Education in Orange County, California

There are two CAAHEP accredited diagnostic medical sonography schools in Orange County, California. One program is in the city of Cypress in the north part of the county, and is offered by Cypress College. The other is in Costa Mesa in the southern section of the country and is offered by Orange Coast College. The two cities are approximately 16 miles apart, so sonography students can access whichever program is accepting applications. However, there are also CAAHEP accredited programs in Loma Linda and Alhambra, which are in different counties but are less than 50 miles from Orange County. Every school has a financial aid office that can provide a lot of information about available seminars for sonography study.

Attending a program accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs is the best decision. These programs are designed to ensure students get the right kind of training needed to meet the ARDMS requirements to sit for exams in order to earn ultrasound certification. There are over 250,000 college and university enrollments in Orange County as of 2014, which is an extremely large student population.

Salary and Job Outlook for Sonographers in Orange County, California

The US Labor Department recognizes Orange Co., CA as the Metropolitan Statistical Area of ​​Santa Ana-Anaheim-Irvine, CA. The May 2013 occupational survey reveals that Diagnostic Medical Sonographers earn excellent annual wages in this area at $ 77,510 or $ 37.29 per hour. Compare this to the 67,170 average annual wage or $ 32.29 per hour for all son jobs in the United States. Experience counts in Orange County, with the top 10 percent of sonographers earning $ 110,330 annually. Orange County has an excellent employment outlook for sonographers also and has experienced continued job growth in the education and health services sector year-over-year.

Accredited Ultrasound Technician Programs in Orange County or Nearby

School Name: Cypress College
Address: 9200 Valley View Street, Cypress 90630
Contact Person: Lynn Mitts
Contact Phone: (714) 484-7221
Program: Certificate

School Name: Orange Coast College
Address: 2701 Fairview Road, Costa Mesa 92628
Contact Person: Cynthia Lynn Reber-Bonhall
Contact Phone: (714) 432-5531
Program: Associates Degree

School Name: Loma Linda University
Address: 11234 Anderson St., Nichol Hall A829, Loma Linda 92354
Contact Person: Marie Delange
Contact Phone: (909) 558-4931
Program: Certificate

School Name: Platt College Los Angeles, LLC
Address: 1000 South Fremont Ave., Suite A9 West, Alhambra 91803
Contact Person: Blanca Caro
Contact Phone: (626) 300-5444
Program: Associates Degree

School Name: University of California San Diego Medical Center
Address: 200 West Arbor Drive, San Diego …