Definition and History of Sociology

Definition

In a nutshell, sociology is the scientific study of society. Sociologists use the tools and methods of science to understand how and why humans behave the way they do when they interact together in groups. Though social groups – or societies – are made up of individual people, sociology is the study of the group rather than of the individual. When it comes to understanding how the individual human mind works, sociologists largely leave that up to psychologists.

Most people who call themselves “sociologists” work in universities and colleges, where they teach sociology and conduct sociological research. They ask a variety of questions about society, sometimes wanting answers just for the sake of curiosity; however, many times their findings are used to inform decisions by policymakers, executives, and other individuals. Many people who study sociology go on to conduct sociological research outside of academia, working for government agencies, think tanks, or private corporations. Accurate, systematic study of society is in one way or another useful to just about everyone.

Studying sociology, whether or not you call yourself a “sociologist,” means taking a particular view of the world: a view that sociologist C. Wright Mills called “the sociological imagination.” You have to be willing to set aside your ideas about how the social world should work so that you can see how it actually works. That doesn’t mean that sociologists don’t have personal values and opinions about the social world; they believe that to change the world, you first need to understand it.

History

Sociology is considered one of the social sciences – along with economics, psychology, anthropology, geography, and political science (among others). The social sciences were born in the 18th and 19th centuries, as people began applying the scientific method to human life and behavior. The world was changing dramatically and quickly as industrial production replaced agriculture, as democratic republics replaced monarchies, and as city life replaced country life. Realizing how many great insights science had lent regarding the natural world, people decided to try to use the same method to understand the social world.

Among the social sciences, sociology has always been unique in its ambition to understand the entire social world – considering all its aspects in combination rather than in isolation. It’s a daunting task, and one that sociologists are still struggling with today.

The most important early sociologists had clear ideas about how to study and understand society; these ideas still form the basis for much sociological investigation and discussion today. Karl Marx emphasized the importance of physical resources and the material world; he believed that conflict over resources is at the heart of social life. Emile Durkheim emphasized cooperation rather than conflict: He was interested in the shared norms and values that make cooperative social life possible. Max Weber took ideas from both Marx and Durkheim and argued that both conflict and cooperation, both material resources and cultural values are essential to social life.

Over the past century, sociologists have continued to debate …

Truck Driver Career – Long Term Career Goals

Establishing long-term career goals early in your truck driver career helps you to reach them. When you set goals for yourself, you are able to focus your efforts on the process. Goal setting helps you to get to where you eventually want to be. Goal setting is a powerful process for thinking, planning and motivating yourself to make your vision a reality. Also, because you will be focused on your goals, you will be less likely to be distracted in your efforts.

If you are a newly licensed commercial truck driver you’ve already successfully reached an established goal to get to this point. You’ve worked hard and successfully met all of the extensive licensing requirements. You successfully completed your truck driver training, passed the commercial drivers license exam and the Department of Transportation Medical Exam.

Newly licensed drivers are often hired by trucking companies which will place them with an experienced driver who will be their trainer for a period of time. If this is your situation take advantage of this training period to learn as much as you can about the trucking industry. This includes learning as much as you can about your current employer. Also, get information from other truck drivers about the companies they work for. This will enable you to learn about the many truck driving opportunities that may be available to you once you gain more experience.

The majority of new commercial truck drivers are assigned to haul dry van freight. However, there are a number of truck driving job possibilities. When you are on the road look at trucks and trailers that other drivers are operating. Make notes if you see something that interests you. This can be drivers pulling flatbed trailers, wide loads, tankers, etc. If any of these types of loads interest you it is important that you learn more about the requirements needed to work in these areas of trucking.

Whereas experienced truck drivers already possess significant knowledge about the trucking industry, new drivers have a great deal to learn. This is why it is so important to do good research. Make a list of both positive and negative things you learn about various trucking companies. This should include the advantages and disadvantages of hauling different types of freight. Also, you should consider the type of income you want to earn.

You might want to own your own trucking company. If so, do comprehensive research plus talk to other drivers who own their companies. Learn the advantages and disadvantages of owning your own company. This will enable you to discover if you have the traits, skills and patience necessary to build a successful trucking company.

Good goal setting requires you to make realistic plans.Your plans should be very specific and achievable. Don’t frustrate yourself by making unrealistic plans. Also, it is important to talk to your trusted circle of friends to get honest feedback from them in addition to their support. Good research and planning will greatly benefit you in setting …

Civil Engineering Jobs in India to Rise in the Coming Years!

Civil engineering, one of the oldest and broadest branches of engineering offers vast career opportunities in sectors across. Though in 19802s, the demand of civil engineers slowed down a bit, it has regained its importance and today is one of the hottest career domains to be in. People in this domain are mostly involved in construction, design, development and maintenance of buildings, roads, highways, bridges, tunnels, airports, dams, railway lines and so on.

The demand of civil engineers is anticipated to be on the rise till 2030. According to a report by National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC), the country will need around 76.5 million skilled workforces in the India’s prospering building, construction and real estate sector. In fact the construction sector particularly is forecasted to grow INR 11,954 billion by 2017, which is simply amazing! And it is likely to create more than 45 million jobs catering to people from all walks of life.

The construction sector is the second largest employer in the country after agriculture. It may surprise you but during 2000 and 2013, the industry wooed USD 40,399 million as foreign direct investment (FDI). It is further expected to rise and attract FDI of USD 180 billion by 2020. In fact the capital investments in the sector is expected to reach USD 1,181 billion in 2019-20 from USD 651 billion in 2012-13.

Moreover, with the govt’s impetus in fast tracking investments in infrastructure projects across oil and gas, power, telecommunications the job creating process has been hastened in the engineering, construction and procurement sector.

Since, these particular industries are the typical recruiters of civil engineers, it is expected that civil engineering jobs will grow exponentially in the near future. It would be good to say that civil engineers in India enjoy plush job opportunities and are always high on the priority list of the employers.

Some job profiles-

Given the interdisciplinary nature of this stream, the candidates enjoy huge career prospects. Some of the prominent job titles in this field are listed below-

· Construction engineer

· Project engineer

· Field technician

· Structural engineer

· Site engineer

· Quality control engineer

· Estimation engineer

The employment prospects for the graduates is varied and not limited to just any one area. The best part is candidates enjoy an edge over other career fields when it comes to government jobs. Job seekers whether fresher or experienced are easily absorbed by various govt offices. Some of the most prominent workplaces for civil engineers in govt sector include irrigation, road and building and CPWD. Further, they also find placements in both private and public sector undertakings and infrastructure and construction companies.

In summary, it would be good to say that civil engineering has wide career scope and its demand is not going to fade at least in the near future.…

His Most Famous Painting (The Science of Laziness) – Frank Stella

American painter and print maker, Frank Stella (born May 1936) specializes in the art of ‘Post-painterly Abstraction’ and ‘Minimalism.’ He has been a torchbearer of these innovative modern techniques that refuse to follow the conformist art. ‘Post-painterly Abstraction’ refers to a form of painting, which finds its origins in ‘Abstract Expressionism.’ It uniqueness is attributed to its representation of symmetric geometrical patterns, often set in vibrant color combinations, which could be as few as only two color tones. ‘Minimalism’ is an associate movement of ‘Post-painterly Abstraction,’ which is a form of visual art, where the fundamental features of the work are brought to fore. It belongs to the genre of ‘Modernism’ and carries its underlying methodology of ‘reduction.’ In 1984, Stella came up with his revolutionary work “The Science of Laziness (La scienza della pigrizia),” which is currently put up for display at the National Gallery of Art in Washington DC.

This large relief, “The Science of Laziness (La scienza della pigrizia),” is created over a canvas base with varied media. It makes the use of oil paint, enamel paint, which has the property of drying into a tough, yet shiny finish, and alkyd paint. Alkyd is a form of modified polyester, having a property of drying up on a glossy surface, but with greater flexibility in surface than in the case of enamel paint. Stella’s creative use of three types of paint was specifically designed to add grades in the appearance of colors and give the piece a truly eclectic appearance. Other media employed are etched magnesium, aluminum, and fiberglass (extremely thin glass in fibrous form, known for its strength and optical properties).

Etching is a process in which the surface of a metal is cut, using acid or mordant, to create engravings or different shapes. The prominent colors that adorn the background of “The Science of Laziness (La scienza della pigrizia)” are red, blue, green, and brown. On the left edge of the piece, a white semicircular disc is pasted with brush strokes of red and green. A conical, fan-like structure, with striation, is pasted towards the upper side of the disc. The left side of the ensemble features three cylindrical structures, radiating from the center, yet randomly placed one over the other. In line with Stella’s fascination with striped patterns, all three cylinders have the vertical bands of varying width. A flat and elongated abstract piece is glued to the top of the assemblage that covers the entire breadth of the work. It is painted in bluish-white paint, adding a masterstroke to the work.

Frank’s association with unorthodox art gave him the opportunity to experiment with his ripe imagination for creating some of the most arresting works such as “The Science of Laziness (La scienza della pigrizia,” being the best example.…

A Brief History of Special Education

Perhaps the largest and most pervasive issue in special education, as well as my own journey in education, is special education’s relationship to general education. History has shown that this has never been an easy clear cut relationship between the two. There has been a lot of giving and taking or maybe I should say pulling and pushing when it comes to educational policy, and the educational practices and services of education and special education by the human educators who deliver those services on both sides of the isle, like me.

Over the last 20+ years I have been on both sides of education. I have seen and felt what it was like to be a regular main stream educator dealing with special education policy, special education students and their specialized teachers. I have also been on the special education side trying to get regular education teachers to work more effectively with my special education students through modifying their instruction and materials and having a little more patience and empathy.

Furthermore, I have been a mainstream regular education teacher who taught regular education inclusion classes trying to figure out how to best work with some new special education teacher in my class and his or her special education students as well. And, in contrast, I have been a special education inclusion teacher intruding on the territory of some regular education teachers with my special education students and the modifications I thought these teachers should implement. I can tell you first-hand that none of this give and take between special education and regular education has been easy. Nor do I see this pushing and pulling becoming easy anytime soon.

So, what is special education? And what makes it so special and yet so complex and controversial sometimes? Well, special education, as its name suggests, is a specialized branch of education. It claims its lineage to such people as Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard (1775-1838), the physician who “tamed” the “wild boy of Aveyron,” and Anne Sullivan Macy (1866-1936), the teacher who “worked miracles” with Helen Keller.

Special educators teach students who have physical, cognitive, language, learning, sensory, and/or emotional abilities that deviate from those of the general population. Special educators provide instruction specifically tailored to meet individualized needs. These teachers basically make education more available and accessible to students who otherwise would have limited access to education due to whatever disability they are struggling with.

It’s not just the teachers though who play a role in the history of special education in this country. Physicians and clergy, including Itard- mentioned above, Edouard O. Seguin (1812-1880), Samuel Gridley Howe (1801-1876), and Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet (1787-1851), wanted to ameliorate the neglectful, often abusive treatment of individuals with disabilities. Sadly, education in this country was, more often than not, very neglectful and abusive when dealing with students that are different somehow.

There is even a rich literature in our nation that describes the treatment provided to individuals with disabilities in the 1800s and early 1900s. Sadly, in …

The Actor As A Product

An actor is a product as much as anything that is marked on the Internet. If an Internet marketer does not move a certain product, or attract buyers he or she will change strategies. There is tons of advice on the Internet for sale or for free about marketing your product, but not a lot about marketing actors. If the public does not buy a product on the Internet no matter what you do to sell it, then it is a money-loser. If an actor can not generate dollars for the producer he is a money-loser.

If you take a stroll down the list of A Hollywood actors, you will find varying degrees of acting school ability, but soonless these actors are all on Hollywood's A list because they command top dollars and they command top dollars because there is a reasonable expectation that They will put bums in the seats, which is the only thing that matters in Show Business. Acting ability as judged by a drama teacher is far different than the acting ability as judged by the market place. Confusion for the actor happens when he or she buys the whole acting as an interpretative art form. While it absolutely is an interpretative art form, I would suggest that the audience is the true judge about what is good or what is not.

There is a lot of disdain from those in the acting profession for those actors who are making a lot of money and what that really means is that there is a lot of disdain for the audience that pays to see these players. In Canada, there is a whole industry dedicated to supporting non-commercial theater and film. This increases the superior complexity of players who would not draw flies on the open market. Real actors who make fans of the public, are looked down upon because they are popular, which is exactly what happened in Shakespeare's day, when the intellectuals looked down on him for his popular plays.

An actor as product is what humanity demands. It does not demand secret cults of acting that does not meet the demands of the marketplace. An actor should learn to find his lessons in the audience. In a live theater or a movie theater, there are seats reserved for the most important participant in the performance, the most important judge. These seats are reserved for those that will make or break your career; The audience. …

Education – Your Passport to Success

Never underestimate the importance of education when it comes to getting the job of your dreams. Some people know exactly what they want to be when they “grow up” where as other take time to decide what career that they want to follow.

Getting good grades at High school is imperative to get a place on the course that you want to go on at University but if you don’t it is not the end of the world as re-sits are available to you or you can take access courses that will plump up your grades and help you to gain a place on the University course that you want to take.

There is of course another option when it comes to education – on the job training. This is where an employer takes on an employee on a low ranked position where they will work their way up the ranks going on courses as they go to enable them to eventually take on a position of a higher rank. This option does take years to achieve but it also allows you to understand and appreciate the effort that the “lower” ranked jobs go through allowing you to be a better manager, supervisor or person of authority and standing.

So when you weigh your options up, what should you do? Well, it all depends on what you want the end result to be. Choosing to plan your future based on the goals and ideals that you would like to achieve can be very helpful as it allows you to take an in depth look at the time scale you will need to achieve your dream job on the different routes that you can take. It allows you to decide on trips you may want to take; gap-years you may want to back pack on and allow time to financial plan. Education in some areas cost more than others so making sure you are able to be financially capable of completing your education is important if you are unable to obtain a funding source.

During you time being educated you may find that another interest begins to interest you and if you feel the pull enough to want to change your goal as your desire for success comes from a different field then sit down and re-evaluate your plans, take a long hard look at them and change them if it will gain you more happiness through this new goal.

The same reasoning applies as nothing in life can be expected at all times, sometimes life just happens and you may need to change your plans for those reasons that are beyond your control, the most common of these are personal reasons.

But never lose your way no matter what happens to you in your life as every experience is important and life experience cannot be taught in any classroom. Blips happen in the road but how you get to your eventual successful job is by keeping your dreams alive.…

University of Virginia (UVA) Cavaliers – Nickname Explained

The University of Virginia Cavaliers share a nickname with the Cleveland Cavaliers NBA franchise but that is where the similarities end. The explanation for the University of Virginia Cavaliers nickname actually involves a story of historical significance to the region.

Located in Charlottesville, Virginia the school with a total student population of close to 20,000 is often referred to simply as UVA for short (based on the post office state abbreviation VA for Virginia). The orange and navy blue now worn by the Cavaliers first went into effect in 1888 when athletic teams representing the college used to square off with local YMCA teams for lack of more formal competition. Many people are interested to learn that in the earliest days of collegiate athletics playing games against local YMCA groups was the norm all over the country. In fact, the University of Kentucky basketball program that currently has the most wins of any college team in history began their success with a single victory in the 1903 season against a YMCA squad (the UK team finished a disappointing 1-2 in that first season).

The origin of the Cavaliers nickname comes from what was going on in this region of the world during the seventeenth century when England was involved in a civil war that pitted supporters of the Parliamentary system of government against King Charles I who asserted absolute power in terms of rule. The use of the word Cavalier predates the formation of the United States of America with a very similarly spelled version of the word being used by William Shakespeare in his famed Henry IV play. Shakespeare chose the word to describe a swashbuckler who was not unlike the current University of Virginia mascot that is a sword wielding fellow on horseback. Before being penned by Shakespeare in the final years of the sixteenth century the historic nature of the word Cavaliers dates back to the Spanish word caballeros (translation: horseman) which is actually a derivation of the Latin term caballarius -which has a similar meaning as the Spanish term.

With a solid foundation of the etymology behind the term Cavaliers it is important to understand how it relates to the Virginia program in Charlottesville. Before the days of the American Revolutionary War the modern day state of Virginia was known as the Commonwealth of Virginia. The Commonwealth of Virginia had a reputation of being home to a great many loyalists that were very supportive of the British Crown. When the University of Virginia officially took on the name the Virginia Cavaliers in 1923 it was to pay homage to a bygone era when during the tumultuous seventeenth century British Civil War the good people of the Commonwealth of Virginia aligned themselves with the Royalist supporters who were often referred to as Cavaliers.

The next time you are watching the University of Virginia Cavaliers square off against the University of North Carolina Tar Heels (the oldest rivalry in the South – dating back to 1892) feel free …

8 Reasons Why College Students Become Unsuccessful After Graduation

Teachers have written many articles on how to be successful after graduation, but very few of them cite about the factors that make graduates unsuccessful! In order to be successful, there are certain factors that you definitely have to avoid to ensure success. Some of these elements are:

1) False beliefs: Any incorrect idea that you have about something is a false belief. The best element for success is to let go of false beliefs by getting over them and moving ahead. A small false belief such as being unlucky or not able to find a job should not stop you from looking for a job. To get over false beliefs, one has to get out of their comfort zone and accept challenges so that they can overcome their false beliefs and move on towards newer horizons.

2) External control: A particular way of thinking which is strongly associated with being unsuccessful is blaming everything to external factors. For instance, when one doesn’t perform well in an exam, they blame their teacher or the environment around them. Whereas, successful people revert to their internal locus of control where they believe that they are in control of everything. They strengthen themselves internally so that they can face whatever challenges life throws at them.

3) Persistence and perseverance: Successful people tend to be persistent in life. They tend to continue their hard work until they achieve what they want. Losing hope quickly are the signs of the unsuccessful people who don’t stand up after they fail. So be strong and persistent if you wish to succeed.

4) Rigidity: Unsuccessful people are quite rigid. They tend to stick to their obsolete ways and do not like adapting to changing situations. In this dynamic world, one needs to be highly flexible in order to be successful. You need to adapt to situations accordingly, take hardships and try different methods if one fails.

5) Improper planning: Being planned for your future would guarantee you success. If you have your own plans, you will maintain your focus and head in the correct dimension. Those who are unsuccessful do not plan or even if they do, their plans are incomplete. Therefore, you need to be planned else you’ll be swept by those around you.

6) Lack of self confidence: Ever wondered why the unsuccessful ones are always left behind? It’s all because of the fact that they lack the confidence of presenting their ideas in front of the bosses. You should speak up, be creative and give ideas so that the people around you realize that you are confident.

7) Reminiscing about lack of resources: A lot of unsuccessful ones stay behind just because they think that they don’t have the money or the resources to do things. Why stay behind? If you are affirmative that you have to be successful, you’ll have to do things without resources.

8) Fears: These are not the fears of the dark or the height, but rather these are the fears …

Importance of On-The-Job Training

Confucius once said: “If all I do is hear, I will forget. If I hear and see, I will remember. If I hear, see and do, I will understand.”

On-the-Job-Training or OJT is job training that occurs in the work place. It has many advantages, but it can also have a few disadvantages if the OJT is not planned and executed properly. It is part of a college curriculum that aims to train and orient students about the work and their future career. It is very important not only to teach students their chosen career but to show students the reality about working.

Most students nowadays are not serious in their training. They don’t plan ahead and pick the best company that they can choose. Worst, they ended up cleaning the desk of their superior or doing unrelated tasks.

Here is why students should not take OJT for granted:

1. If you will get a high evaluation grade, your employer might hire you when you graduate.

2. Your background OJT is very important when applying for a job. Oftentimes, employers will ask you the relevance of your training to your course and to the position you are applying for.

3. Some companies will give you a monthly allowance if you are doing well in your tasks.

4. OJT will be your training ground. If you still have no idea on what is meant to be a worker, OJT will give a hint of career realities.

5. Your OJT superior my recommend your skills to other companies whom he knows.

6. It will give you a sense of confidence that you can use when applying for a job after graduation

7. Help individuals make informed career choices

Students should realize the importance of OJT on their future career. Having a good performance during OJT is very important especially now that there’s a tight competition towards job seekers and the high qualification of companies.

For articles about career move, visit DitoNa Articles…