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Study confirms plastics threat to south pacific seabirds

Study Confirms Plastics Threat to South Pacific Seabirds
Northern Royal Albatross nesting on Big Sister, north of Rekohu (Chatham Island)

Plastic gathered from remote corners of the South Pacific Ocean, including nesting areas of New Zealand albatrosses, has confirmed the global threat of plastic pollution to seabirds.

Published on 12 October in the journal Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, the study looks for patterns in the plastics seabirds from around the South Pacific ingest.

It uses data gathered by Canterbury Museum Senior Curator Natural History Dr Paul Scofield and Wellington ornithologist Christopher Robertson in the late 1990s and 2000s.

“Plastic pollution is a major threat to seabird species, not just here in New Zealand but around the world,” says Dr Scofield. “Knowing more about how seabirds interact with plastic might help us solve this problem in the future. At the moment, it’s only getting worse.”

Christopher Robertson, co-author of the study says, “One of the interesting takeaways from this study is that it shows you just how far plastic can travel in the ocean. Some of the areas where we collected the plastic are very remote. To me, that shows that this is a global issue; it’s not something a single country can solve on its own.”

“The samples provided by our colleagues from New Zealand allowed us to assess the patterns of seabird-plastic interactions on a larger scale, across the entire South Pacific Ocean,” says the study’s lead author, Valeria Hidalgo-Ruz from the Chilean Millenium Nucleus Centre of Ecology and Sustainable Management of Oceanic Islands.

Study Confirms Plastics Threat to South Pacific Seabirds
Great Frigate Bird tangled in plastic, Desventuradas Islands, Chile. Credit: Diego Miranda

“The results confirm that even seabirds in one of the most remote areas of the world, the Rapa Nui (Easter Island) ecoregion, are strongly affected by this global problem, highlighting the need for urgent solutions.”

In the late 1990s and 2000s, fieldworkers gathered thousands of pieces of plastic from albatross nesting sites on the Chatham Islands, Campbell Island and Taiaroa Head in Otago. The birds swallowed most of the plastic while foraging at sea and then regurgitated it at the nesting sites as they tried to feed their chicks.

Between 2003 and 2004, the team also examined plastic from the stomachs of Sooty Shearwaters killed by fishing operations around the Chatham Rise and the southeast coast of the South Island.

The study compared these plastics with similar samples from other locations around the Pacific including coastal Chile and Rapa Nui. The researchers examined the types of plastic found along with their shape, colour and density.

  • Study Confirms Plastics Threat to South Pacific Seabirds
    Plastics collected from albatross nesting sites on Big Sister in 2017. Credit: Mike Bell
  • Study Confirms Plastics Threat to South Pacific Seabirds
    Plastics in a Great Frigate Bird nest on the Desventuradas Islands, Chile. Credit: Diego Miranda

Albatrosses are more likely to eat brightly-coloured plastic, in particular red, green and blue. The birds probably mistake these objects for prey. The study suggests the brightly-coloured fishing gear of commercial fishing operations around the Chatham Islands and in Chile could be the source of some of the plastic found at those nesting sites.

The Great Barrier Reef has lost half its corals in just 20 years, study says

The population of corals within Australia’s Great Barrier Reef has plummeted by 50 percent in the last two decades, according to a new study published on Wednesday.

Researchers from the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies in Queensland, Australia, assessed the colony size of corals in the reef — the world’s largest — between 1995 and 2017, and found a drastic depletion in the population of small, medium and large coral.

“The decline occurred in both shallow and deeper water, and across virtually all species, but especially in branching and table-shaped corals,” study co-author Professor Terry Hughes said of the findings, published in the Royal Society journal.

These specific corals are especially important in providing a habitat for marine life such as fish that inhabit the reef, the researchers said, meaning their loss also results in a decline in reef biodiversity. Despite covering less than 0.1 percent of the ocean floor, reefs host more than 25 percent of all marine fish species, according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, a network of government and civil society organizations.

“These were the worst affected by record-breaking temperatures that triggered mass bleaching in 2016 and 2017,” Hughes added.

Coral reefs contain remarkable biodiversity, but the vast majority face being wiped out as the planet continues to warm. David Gray / Reuters file

Coral bleaching occurs as a result of the reef experiencing warmer than usual sea temperatures. Climate change has dramatically increased the frequency of these events which inhibits the reef’s ability to recover. A 2019 report by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warned that reefs can take more than 15 years to recover, yet further mass bleaching — the third event in just five years — occurred again this year.

“We used to think the Great Barrier Reef is protected by its sheer size, but our results show that even the world’s largest and relatively well-protected reef system is increasingly compromised and in decline,” Hughes said.

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Coral reefs — which harbor the highest biodiversity of any ecosystem on earth — are some of the most vulnerable environments to the climate crisis. The U.N. report warned that the vast majority of all tropical reefs on earth will disappear even if global warming is limited 2.7 degrees Fahrenheit; an aspiration that looks increasingly unlikely to be achieved.

The earth has already warmed over 1.8 degrees above pre-industrial levels with current estimates suggesting that the world is on track for between 3.6 and 4.4 degrees of warming.

“There is no time to lose, we must sharply decrease greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible,” the study authors concluded.

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A Study Shows There’s a 50% Chance We’re Living in a Simulation

Photo credit: Yagi Studio - Getty Images
Photo credit: Yagi Studio – Getty Images

From Popular Mechanics

If real life in 2020 seems like just too much, take comfort in some breaking news: scientists say odds are even that we’re living in a simulation. The coin flip depends a great deal on science we may uncover in the near future, they say.

🤯 The world is f#@!-ing weird. Let’s explore it together.

The 50/50 probability is rounded from a calculation whose outcome is more like 50.22222 to 49.77778. Scientific American cites the landmark 2003 paper “Are We Living in a Computer Simulation?” by philosopher Nick Bostrom. It’s worth reading Bostrom’s brief abstract in full:

“I argue that at least one of the following propositions is true: (1) the human species is very likely to become extinct before reaching a ‘posthuman’ stage; (2) any posthuman civilization is extremely unlikely to run a significant number of simulations of its evolutionary history (or variations thereof); (3) we are almost certainly living in a computer simulation. It follows that the belief that there is a significant chance that we shall one day become posthumans who run ancestor‐simulations is false, unless we are currently living in a simulation. I discuss some consequences of this result.”

Scientific American points out that The Matrix and its sequels did a lot to push the simulation theory forward, but philosophers have speculated in this direction for thousands of years. There are also many theories that flirt with simulation in the guise of radical solipsism and skepticism.

But Bostrom’s simulation theory in particular pivots on computing power. It doesn’t have to be supercomputers the way we imagine them today—think of proposed galaxy-scale superstructures like Dyson spheres, or even the imaginings of Star Trek writers. If a computer existed that could hold our entire universe inside, we likely wouldn’t recognize its workings.

📚 The Best Books to Expand Your Mind

Bostrom’s claim is both philosophically and probabilistically bold, with considered outcomes he has placed almost on a pure binary. This led Columbia University astronomer David Kipping to run his own numbers using Bostrom’s argument as a guide.

Kipping began with Bayesian analysis, which lets the calculator include assumptions as a way to aid in the modeling. And since Bostrom’s first two criteria both posit there is no simulation, he condensed them into one criterion. Then, Scientific American explains, Kipping assigned “the principle of indifference,” which is the most nonspecific and non-assumptive “prior probability” you can use.

The next part requires a bit of a deep breath.

“Kipping then showed that even in the simulation hypothesis, most of the simulated realities would be nulliparous,” Scientific American‘s Anil Ananthaswamy writes, meaning the simulations cannot spawn their own additional simulations. He continues:

“That is because as simulations spawn more simulations, the computing resources available to each subsequent generation dwindles to the point where the vast majority of realities will be those that do not have the computing power necessary to simulate offspring realities that are capable

Foundation to Fight H-ABC, University of Massachusetts Medical School and Yale University Initiate Gene Therapy Study Targeting Cure for Rare Disease

ROCKVILLE, Md., Oct. 13, 2020 /PRNewswire/ — Foundation to Fight H-ABC, a non-profit organization dedicated to increasing awareness and driving development of a cure for the degenerative children’s disease, H-ABC, today announced a sponsored research agreement with the University of Massachusetts Medical School and Yale University to advance a targeted gene therapy for H-ABC.

“We have high hopes to quickly prove efficacy with this approach to move research forward and find a permanent cure for this devastating disease,” said Michele Sloan, Co-Founder, Foundation to Fight H-ABC.

H-ABC (hypomyelination with atrophy of the basal ganglia and cerebellum) belongs to a group of conditions called leukodystrophies, diseases that affect the white matter of the brain. These diseases disrupt the growth or maintenance of the myelin sheath, a protective layer that insulates nerve cells and allows for the transmission of messages between cells.

Caused by a mutation in the TUBB4A gene, H-ABC is a rare genetic disorder that affects certain parts of the brain—specifically the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, which control movement. H-ABC targets these important structures, reducing both their size and function. As a result, children who suffer from H-ABC often experience motor problems, cannot walk, talk, or sit on their own. Currently, there is no known cure for this disabling and life-threatening condition.

The teams of Dr. Guangping Gao (University of Massachusetts Medical School) and Dr. Karel Liem (Yale School of Medicine) will combine extensive expertise in the fields of Adeno-associated virus (AAV), a platform for gene delivery for the treatment of a variety of human diseases and H-ABC disease models, to develop AAV vectors to silence or outcompete the mutated TUBB4A gene.

“To date, AAV-based gene delivery system is the vector of choice for in vivo gene therapy of many currently untreatable rare diseases including H-ABC,” said Guangping Gao, Ph.D. “We are very excited for starting close collaborations with Dr. Liem’s team at Yale and the Foundation to Fight H-ABC to develop potential gene therapeutics for this devastating disease.”

“With the support from the Foundation to Fight H-ABC, we are excited to build upon our mechanistic studies of the disease and to collaborate with Dr. Gao of the University of Massachusetts to develop and test AAV approaches to H-ABC,” said Karel F Liem Jr., M.D., Ph.D.

For more information, please visit

CONTACT: Sawyer Lipari,

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Study Suggests A Supernova Exploded Near Earth About 2.5 Million Years Ago, Possibly Causing An Extinction Event

Supernovas are amazingly bright explosions of massive stars at the end of their lives. During the gravitational collapse, the outer layers of the star are pushed away, and chemical elements formed inside the star are released into space. This cosmic dust rains down onto the Earth continuously, including exotic elements formed inside the dying star.

Research published in the journal Physical Review Letters used the concentration of two such exotic elements preserved in ocean sediments to hypothesize that a supernova exploded near Earth just 2.5 million years ago.

The authors, led by Dr. Gunther Korschinek from the Technical University of Munich, focused their study on ferromanganese crusts collected in the Pacific Ocean. Ferromanganese crusts form on the bottom of the ocean by layers of iron- and manganese-oxides precipitating out of seawater. The studied samples started to grow some 20 million years ago at depths ranging from 5,200 feet to 3.18 miles (approximately 1.600 to 5.120 meters). The researchers measured the concentrations of iron-60 and manganese-53 isotopes in the hardened crust. They differ from Earth’s most common form of the elements by their varying number of neutrons in the atomic nucleus. Both isotopes are synthesized in large stars shortly before supernova explosions and are unstable, decaying completely after 4 to 15 million years. Their presence in sediment samples is evidence for Earth passing through a cloud of cosmic dust generated by an exploding star in – geologically speaking – recent times.

Research published in August 2020 already noted a peak of iron-60 in sediments dating back 33,000 years, about 2.6 million years, and possibly another at around 6 million years ago. The new research also found elevated concentrations of manganese-53 in a 2.5 million-year-old layer, supporting the idea of a nearby supernova explosion as the source of both isotopes.

Based on the measured concentrations, the researchers calculated that the exploding star was around 11 to 25 times the size of our sun. The researchers also note that the age of the presumed supernova coincides with the end of the Pliocene epoch on Earth, some 2.58 million years ago. The end of the Pliocene is marked by a general cooling trend leading into the ice-age, but also a mass extinction event involving many large land mammals. In theory, a supernova close enough to the Earth (roughly less than 30 to 1000 light-years) could irradiate Earth with a dangerous dose of Gamma rays. The energetic rays could damage and alter the chemical composition of Earth’s atmosphere, exposing the surface to harmful solar and cosmic radiation and triggering a runaway

Early Mammals Acted More Like Reptiles, Says Study


  • Scientists said early mammals led a less active but much longer lives
  • They analyzed teeth fossils of earliest mammals, the Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium
  • The study suggested that mammals developed some characteristics like warm-bloodedness at a later period

The first mammals that roamed the Earth millions of years ago functioned and acted more like reptiles even with their already advanced body structures, a new study showed. 

The research, published in Nature Communications, suggested there might be an overlap between warm-bloodedness and cold-bloodedness as mammals evolved in the past. It may be noted that mammals are considered as warm-blooded animals while reptiles are cold-blooded. 

As part of the study, a team of paleontologists analyzed teeth fossils from two of the earliest mammals, the Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium, which lived alongside early dinosaurs nearly 200 million years ago. This was the first time researchers used powerful X-rays to examine ancient fossils.

The team scanned the fossilized cementum of the teeth fossils. The cementum is what attaches the teeth into the socket in the gum of mammals and it continues to grow throughout life.

The paleontologists studied the tree-like growth rings in the tooth sockets, which helped them understand the lifespan of the ancient mammals and how they evolved during the early Jurassic period. 

They found that although Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium had features similar to their modern counterparts, including bigger brains, they lived more like lizards.  

“They were otherwise quite mammal-like in their skeletons, skulls and teeth. They had specialized chewing teeth, relatively large brains and probably had hair, but their long lifespan shows they were living life at more of a reptilian pace than a mammalian one,” Dr. Elis Newham, lead author of the study and a research associate at the University of Bristol, said in a press release. 

“There is good evidence that the ancestors of mammals began to become increasingly warm-blooded from the Late Permian, more than 270 million years ago, but, even 70 million years later, our ancestors were still functioning more like modern reptiles than mammals,” Newham added. 

The researcher explained that even though the ancient mammals acted more like reptiles, it was found that their bone tissues endured sustained physical activities, suggesting that they were capable of foraging and hunting. They were more active than small reptiles but not as energetic as the mammals, Newham explained.  

Dinosaurs Pictured, an animatronic life-size dinosaur ahead of an interactive exhibition in Jurassic Kingdom, at Osterley Park in west London. Photo: REUTERS/Toby Melville

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Black hole-sized magnetic fields could be created on Earth, study says

Scientists should be able to create magnetic fields on Earth that rival the strength of those seen in black holes and neutron stars, a new study suggests. 

Such strong magnetic fields, which would be created by blasting microtubules with lasers, are important for conducting basic physics, materials science and astronomy research, according to a new research paper authored by Osaka University engineer Masakatsu Murakami and colleagues. The paper was published Oct. 6 in the open-access journal Scientific Reports.

Most magnetic fields on Earth, even artificial ones, are not particularly strong. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used in hospitals typically produces fields of around 1 tesla, or 10,000 gauss. (For comparison, the geomagnetic field that swings compass needles to the north registers between 0.3 and 0.5 gauss.) Some research MRI machines use fields as high as 10.5 tesla, or 105,000 gauss, and a 2018 lab experiment involving lasers created a field of up to about 1,200 tesla, or just over 1 kilotesla. But no one has successfully gone higher than that. 

Related: 9 cool facts about magnets

Now, new simulations suggest that generating a megatesla field — that is, a 1 million tesla field — should be possible. Murakami and his team used computer simulations and modeling to find that shooting ultra-intense laser pulses at hollow tubes just a few microns in diameter could energize the electrons in the tube wall and cause some to leap into the hollow cavity at the center of the tube, imploding the tube. The interactions of these ultra-hot electrons and the vacuum created as the tube implodes leads to the flow of electric current. The flow of electric charges is what creates a magnetic field. In this case, the current flow can amplify a pre-existing magnetic field by two to three orders of magnitude, the researchers found.

The megatesla magnetic field wouldn’t last long, fading after about 10 nanoseconds. But that’s plenty of time for modern physics experiments, which frequently work with particles and conditions that wink out of existence in far less than the blink of an eye. 

Murakami and his team further used supercomputer simulations to confirm that these ultra-strong magnetic fields are in reach for modern technology. They calculated that creating these magnetic fields in the real world would require a laser system with a pulse energy of 0.1 to 1 kilojoule and a total power of 10 to 100 petawatts. (A petawatt is a million billion watts.) Ten-petawatt lasers are already being deployed as part of the European Extreme Light Infrastructure, and Chinese scientists are planning to build a 100 petawatt laser called the Station of Extreme Light, Science Magazine reported in 2018.

Ultrastrong magnetic fields have multiple applications in fundamental physics, including in the search for dark matter. Superstrong magnets can also confine plasma inside nuclear fusion reactors into a smaller area, paving the way for viable fusion energy in the future, Live Science previously reported.

Originally published on Live Science.


NASA delays commercial crew mission to study Falcon 9 engine issue

WASHINGTON — NASA is delaying the launch of the first operational SpaceX commercial crew mission to the first half of November to provide more time to review a problem during a recent Falcon 9 launch attempt.

NASA announced Oct. 10 the Crew-1 mission, which was scheduled to launch on a Falcon 9 in the early morning hours of Oct. 31 from the Kennedy Space Center, will now launch no earlier than early to mid-November.

The delay, the agency said, will provide more time for SpaceX “to complete hardware testing and data reviews as the company evaluates off-nominal behavior of Falcon 9 first stage engine gas generators observed during a recent non-NASA mission launch attempt.” NASA did not identify the specific launch attempt in question, but an Oct. 2 launch of a Falcon 9 carrying a GPS 3 satellite was scrubbed just two seconds before liftoff because of SpaceX Chief Executive Elon Musk later described as an “unexpected pressure rise in the turbomachinery gas generator.”

“With the high cadence of missions SpaceX performs, it really gives us incredible insight into this commercial system and helps us make informed decisions about the status of our missions,” Kathy Lueders, NASA associate administrator for human exploration and operations, said in the agency statement. She said an investigation into the problem is ongoing “and we should be a lot smarter within the coming week.”

Both the Crew-1 and the GPS 3 missions are using new Falcon 9 first stages that have not previously launched. After the GPS 3 scrub, SpaceX successfully launched another Falcon 9 Oct. 6 carrying 60 Starlink satellites using a booster making its third flight. SpaceX has yet to reschedule the GPS 3 launch.

NASA said the issue with the Crew-1 mission will not delay another Falcon 9 launch, of the Sentinel-6 Michael Freilich Earth observation satellite, scheduled for Nov. 10 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California. That mission will also use a new Falcon 9 first stage. Another Falcon 9, likely with a previously flown first stage, will launch a cargo Dragon spacecraft for NASA in late November or early December.

The Crew-1 mission will transport NASA astronauts Mike Hopkins, Victor Glover and Shannon Walker, and JAXA astronaut Soichi Noguchi, to the International Space Station for a six-month stay. NASA previously delayed the launch from Oct. 23 to Oct. 31 to provide more time to wrap up certification work of the Crew Dragon spacecraft.

“For this critical launch, we’re happy to support NASA and any schedule that they need,” Hans Koenigsmann, vice president of build and flight reliability at SpaceX, said at a Sept. 29 NASA briefing about the Crew-1 mission just after the agency announced the delay to Oct. 31. “We will fly when we are ready to fly.”

The delay won’t affect another crewed mission to the ISS. The Soyuz MS-17 spacecraft carrying NASA astronaut Kate Rubins and Roscosmos cosmonauts Sergey Ryzhikov and Sergey Kud-Sverchkov is scheduled to launch at 1:45 a.m. Eastern Oct. 14 from the Baikonur

Study shows how climate impacts food webs, poses socioeconomic threat in Eastern Africa

Study shows how climate impacts food webs, poses socioeconomic threat in Eastern Africa
The research team spent 12 days on Lake Tanganyika collecting core samples from the lake’s floor. They chartered a Congolese merchant vessel, seen here, and adapted it for their research project. Credit: Michael McGlue, University of Kentucky

A new study is sounding the alarm on the impact climate change could have on one of the world’s most vulnerable regions.

Michael McGlue, Pioneer Natural Resources Professor of Stratigraphy in the University of Kentucky Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, and his team conducted the study at Lake Tanganyika—a major African fishery. The results, which published today in Science Advances, show how certain changes in climate may place the fishery at risk, potentially diminishing food resources for millions of people in this area of eastern Africa.

“Lake Tanganyika’s fish are a critically important resource for impoverished people from four nations (Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi and Zambia) and resilience to environmental change in that region is quite low,” McGlue said. “Our study revealed that high frequency variability in climate can lead to major disruptions in how the lake’s food web functions.”

Small pelagic fish, known locally as dagaa, are abundant in Lake Tanganyika, and their conservation is pivotal to the food security and economy of rapidly growing and largely impoverished segments of these four nations.

Dagaa feed on algae and plankton, which means greater algae production in the lake results in more fish. How this aquatic food web responds to external forces, like climate, is critical for identifying vulnerabilities and maintaining healthy fish stocks. But until now, very limited information existed on how Lake Tanganyika may respond to such forces.

To understand how the lake reacts to climate changes, the team would need detailed information on the lake’s upwelling—the process by which deep waters rise and fertilize surface waters, thereby increasing algae and photosynthesis. In order to observe this, the team would have to obtain data from well-preserved sediment cores within the lake.

McGlue and his team traveled to one of the most remote regions of Lake Tanganyika, the southern basin, on a 12-day trip to collect these cores from the lake floor.

“The winds were especially violent that season, so most of our cruise was spent taking refuge from the waves in bays near the shoreline,” McGlue said. “But in the narrow window when the winds dropped, we raced out to our stations and collected the cores.”

McGlue and his team would later “read” the layers of sediment.

“The chemistry and fossil content of each layer tells us a specific story about how the lake functions,” McGlue said. “Limnologists (scientists who study the lake today, like our co-author Dr. Ismael Kimirei) help us to translate the information in the sedimentary record and learn how climate change affects the lake’s food web.”

Until now, sedimentary records from Lake Tanganyika lacked the resolution needed to accurately measure the influence of frequent climatic events, such as the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Most sedimentary datasets are low resolution, meaning that changes

Researchers study the invasive frog’s role in Galapagos food web

Researchers study the invasive frog’s role in Galapagos food web
Fowler’s snouted treefrog Scinax quinquefasciatus was introduced on the Galápagos archipelago in the late 1990s. Credit: Senckenberg/Ernst

“I have taken pains to verify this assertion, and have found it true that frogs, toads, and newts are absent from most oceanic islands”—thus states Charles Darwin in his well-known work “On the Origin of Species.” For a long time, this observation by the famous naturalist also held true for the Galápagos Islands, which are inextricably linked to his name. “This only changed with the arrival of Fowler’s snouted treefrog Scinax quinquefasciatus on the archipelago in 1997 or 1998,” explains Dr. habil. Raffael Ernst of the Senckenberg Natural History Collections in Dresden, and he continues, “In our study, we examined the interactions of this newcomer with the local, primarily endemic fauna on Galápagos.”

Ernst and his colleagues were curious to find out what role this 33-to-38-millimeter-long frog plays within the island fauna’s food web. “You might call it a study of ‘eat or get eaten’,” adds Ernst. To this end, the researchers examined the stomachs of 228 frogs they collected during an expedition in 2017. “In total, we were able to identify eleven different groups of invertebrates in the frogs’ stomachs. At 60 percent, butterflies predominated among the prey animals; in addition, we also found remains of cockroaches, arachnids, and grasshoppers,” explains Ernst, and he adds, “The frogs do not show any specific food preference—they simply eat what is most common locally.”

In a second step, the team examined whose menu the frogs might be on, and they hit paydirt with the islands’ endemic diving beetle Thermonectus basillarus galapagoensis. “The beetle larvae also feed on the frogs’ tadpoles. We wanted to know whether this might lead to a natural regulation of the frog’s population,” explains Ernst. To answer this question, the scientists conducted controlled predator-prey experiments. These show that the beetle larvae are usually already ‘sated’ before they have completely consumed the offered tadpoles. “This indicates that the beetles will not be able to sustainably limit the population of this invasive frog species. Therefore, the frog’s expansion and its impact on the ecosystem should be carefully monitored in the future,” adds Ernst in closing.

An insect species can actively escape from the vents of predators via the digestive system

More information:
M. Mar Moretta-Urdiales et al. Eat and be eaten: trophic interactions of the introduced frog Scinax quinquefasciatus in anthropogenic environments in Galápagos, NeoBiota (2020). DOI: 10.3897/neobiota.61.53256
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